




Hadi Poormohammadi,
Mohsen Sardari Zarchi and
Hossein Ghaneai. NCHB: A method for constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted triplets based on height function and binarization. In JTB, Vol. 489(110144), 2020. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Simplistic, Program TripNet, reconstruction. Note: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.110144.



R. A. Leo Elworth,
Huw A. Ogilvie,
Jiafan Zhu and
Luay Nakhleh. Advances in Computational Methods for Phylogenetic Networks in the Presence of Hybridization. In
Tandy Warnow editor, Bioinformatics and Phylogenetics. Seminal Contributions of Bernard Moret, Vol. 29 of Computational Biology, Springer, 2019. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program PhyloNet, Program PhyloNetworks SNaQ, Program PIRN, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, survey. Note: https://bioinfocs.rice.edu/sites/g/files/bxs266/f/ElworthZhuOgilvieNakhleh.pdf



Juan Wang and
Maozu Guo. IGNet: Constructing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks Based on Incompatible Graphs. In ICNCFSKD19, Vol. 1075:894900 of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer, 2019. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program BIMLR, Program IGNet, Program LNetwork, reconstruction, software.





Gabriel Cardona,
Joan Carles Pons and
Celine Scornavacca. Generation of Binary TreeChild phylogenetic networks. In PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 15(10):e1007440.129, 2019. Keywords: enumeration, explicit network, generation, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNetwork, Program TCGenerators, software, treechild network. Note: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007440.





Hussein A. Hejase,
Natalie VandePol,
Gregory A. Bonito and
Kevin J. Liu. Fast and accurate statistical inference of phylogenetic networks using largescale genomic sequence data. In RECOMBCG18, Vol. 11183:242259 of LNCS, Springer, 2018. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program FastNet, reconstruction. Note: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/05/01/132795.



Sarah Bastkowski,
Daniel Mapleson,
Andreas Spillner,
Taoyang Wu,
Monika Balvociute and
Vincent Moulton. SPECTRE: a Suite of PhylogEnetiC Tools for Reticulate Evolution. In BIO, Vol. 34(6):10571058, 2018. Keywords: abstract network, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program FlatNJ, Program QNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, software, split network. Note: https://doi.org/10.1101/169177.







Jiafan Zhu,
Dingqiao Wen,
Yun Yu,
Heidi M. Meudt and
Luay Nakhleh. Bayesian inference of phylogenetic networks from biallelic genetic markers. In PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 14(1):e1005932.132, 2018. Keywords: bayesian, explicit network, from multistate characters, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNet. Note: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005932.





Sha Zhu and
James H. Degnan. Displayed Trees Do Not Determine Distinguishability Under the Network Multispecies Coalescent. In SB, Vol. 66(2):283298, 2017. Keywords: branch length, coalescent, explicit network, from network, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Hybridcoal, Program HybridLambda, Program PhyloNet, software, uniqueness. Note: presentation available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLYGTfEZG7g.



Bingxin Lu,
Louxin Zhang and
Hon Wai Leong. A program to compute the soft RobinsonFoulds distance between phylogenetic networks. In APBC17, Vol. 18(Suppl. 2):111 of BMC Genomics, 2017. Keywords: cluster containment, distance between networks, explicit network, exponential algorithm, from network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program iceluPhyloNetwork. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s1286401735005.





Han Lai,
Maureen Stolzer and
Dannie Durand. Fast Heuristics for Resolving Weakly Supported Branches Using Duplication, Transfers, and Losses. In RECOMBCG17, Vol. 10562:298320 of LNCS, Springer, 2017. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Notung, reconstruction.











Paul Bastide. Shifted stochastic processes evolving on trees : application to models of adaptive evolution on phylogenies. PhD thesis, Université Paris Saclay, 2017. Keywords: ancestral trait reconstruction, bayesian, explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNetworks SNaQ, reconstruction, statistical model. Note: https://tel.archivesouvertes.fr/tel01629648/en/, slides..



Sajad Mirzaei and
Yufeng Wu. Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In TCBB, Vol. 13(3):565570, 2016. Keywords: bound, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/PIRNspreprint.pdf.





François Chevenet,
JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Celine Scornavacca,
Edwin Jacox,
Emmanuelle Jousselin and
Vincent Berry. SylvX: a viewer for phylogenetic tree reconciliations. In BIO, Vol. 32(4):608610, 2016. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SylvX, software, visualization. Note: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emmanuelle_Jousselin/publication/283446016_SylvX_a_viewer_for_phylogenetic_tree_reconciliations/links/5642146108aec448fa621efa.pdf.



Hussein A. Hejase and
Kevin J. Liu. A scalability study of phylogenetic network inference methods using empirical datasets and simulations involving a single reticulation. Vol. 17(422):112, 2016. Keywords: abstract network, evaluation, from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNet, Program PhyloNetworks SNaQ, reconstruction, simulation, unicyclic network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s1285901612771.



James Oldman,
Taoyang Wu,
Leo van Iersel and
Vincent Moulton. TriLoNet: Piecing together small networks to reconstruct reticulate evolutionary histories. In MBE, Vol. 33(8):21512162, 2016. Keywords: explicit network, from subnetworks, from trinets, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LEV1ATHAN, Program TriLoNet, reconstruction.



Juan Wang. A Survey of Methods for Constructing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks. In PLoS ONE, Vol. 11(11):e0165834, 2016. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, from clusters, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program BIMLR, Program Dendroscope, Program LNetwork, reconstruction, survey. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165834.



Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk and
Celine Scornavacca. Kernelizations for the hybridization number problem on multiple nonbinary trees. In JCSS, Vol. 82(6):10751089, 2016. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Treeduce, reconstruction. Note: https://arxiv.org/abs/1311.4045v3.



Edwin Jacox,
Cédric Chauve,
Gergely J. Szöllösi,
Yann Ponty and
Celine Scornavacca. EcceTERA: comprehensive gene treespecies tree reconciliation using parsimony. In BIO, Vol. 32(13):20562058, 2016. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program ecceTERA. Note: https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btw105.



Monika Balvociute. Flat Embeddings of Genetic and Distance Data. PhD thesis, University of Otago, 2016. Keywords: abstract network, flat, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, planar, Program FlatNJ, Program SplitsTree, split, split network. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10523/6286.





Mareike Fischer,
Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk and
Celine Scornavacca. On Computing The Maximum Parsimony Score Of A Phylogenetic Network. In SIDMA, Vol. 29(1):559585, 2015. Keywords: APX hard, cluster containment, explicit network, FPT, from network, from sequences, integer linear programming, level k phylogenetic network, NP complete, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program MPNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.2430.





Quan Nguyen and
Teemu Roos. Likelihoodbased inference of phylogenetic networks from sequence data by PhyloDAG. In AlCoB15, Vol. 9199:126140 of LNCS, springer, 2015. Keywords: BIC, explicit network, from sequences, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloDAG, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/ttonteri/pub/alcob2015.pdf.





Jittat Fakcharoenphol,
Tanee Kumpijit and
Attakorn Putwattana. A Faster Algorithm for the Tree Containment Problem for Binary Nearly Stable Phylogenetic Networks. In Proceedings of the The 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE'15), Pages 337342, IEEE, 2015. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, nearlystable network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, tree containment.



Benjamin Albrecht. Computing all hybridization networks for multiple binary phylogenetic input trees. In BMCB, Vol. 16(236):115, 2015. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, exponential algorithm, FPT, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Hybroscale, Program PIRN, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s1285901506607.



Yun Yu and
Luay Nakhleh. A maximum pseudolikelihood approach for phylogenetic networks. In RECOMBCG15, Vol. 16(Suppl 10)(S10):110 of BMC Genomics, BioMed Central, 2015. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNet, reconstruction, tripartition distance. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471216416S10S10.



Sha Zhu,
James H. Degnan,
Sharyn J. Goldstein and
Bjarki Eldon. HybridLambda: simulation of multiple merger and Kingman gene genealogies in species networks and species trees. In BMCB, Vol. 16(292):17, 2015. Keywords: explicit network, from network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridLambda, simulation, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s128590150721y.



Gergely J. Szöllösi,
Adrián Arellano Davín,
Eric Tannier,
Vincent Daubin and
Bastien Boussau. Genomescale phylogenetic analysis finds extensive gene transfer among fungi. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 370(1678):111, 2015. Keywords: duplication, from sequences, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program ALE, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0335.





Marc Thuillard and
Didier FraixBurnet. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers? In Evolutionary Bioinformatics, Vol. 11:213221, 2015. [Abstract] Keywords: circular split system, explicit network, from multistate characters, outerplanar, perfect, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, planar, polynomial, reconstruction, split. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.4137%2FEBO.S28158.







Jessica W. Leigh and
David Bryant. PopART: fullfeature software for haplotype network construction. In Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6(9):11101116, 2015. Keywords: abstract network, from sequences, haplotype network, MedianJoining, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, population genetics, Program PopART, Program TCS, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041210X.12410.



Gabriel Cardona,
Joan Carles Pons and
Francesc Rosselló. A reconstruction problem for a class of phylogenetic networks with lateral gene transfers. In ALMOB, Vol. 10(28):115, 2015. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LGTnetwork, reconstruction, software, treebased network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s130150150059z.





Hadi Poormohammadi,
Changiz Eslahchi and
Ruzbeh Tusserkani. TripNet: A Method for Constructing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks from Rooted Triplets. In PLoS ONE, Vol. 9(9):e106531, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, heuristic, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program TripNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.3722.
Toggle abstract
"The problem of constructing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from an arbitrary set of rooted triplets is an NPhard problem. In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm called TripNet, which tries to construct a rooted phylogenetic network with the minimum number of reticulation nodes from an arbitrary set of rooted triplets. Despite of current methods that work for dense set of rooted triplets, a key innovation is the applicability of TripNet to nondense set of rooted triplets. We prove some theorems to clarify the performance of the algorithm. To demonstrate the efficiency of TripNet, we compared TripNet with SIMPLISTIC. It is the only available software which has the ability to return some rooted phylogenetic network consistent with a given dense set of rooted triplets. But the results show that for complex networks with high levels, the SIMPLISTIC running time increased abruptly. However in all cases TripNet outputs an appropriate rooted phylogenetic network in an acceptable time. Also we tetsed TripNet on the Yeast data. The results show that Both TripNet and optimal networks have the same clustering and TripNet produced a level3 network which contains only one more reticulation node than the optimal network."





Anthony Labarre and
Sicco Verwer. Merging partially labelled trees: hardness and a declarative programming solution. In TCBB, Vol. 11(2):389397, 2014. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction. Note: https://halupecupem.archivesouvertes.fr/hal00855669.
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"Intraspecific studies often make use of haplotype networks instead of gene genealogies to represent the evolution of a set of genes. Cassens et al. proposed one such network reconstruction method, based on the global maximum parsimony principle, which was later recast by the first author of the present work as the problem of finding a minimum common supergraph of a set of t partially labelled trees. Although algorithms have been proposed for solving that problem on two graphs, the complexity of the general problem on trees remains unknown. In this paper, we show that the corresponding decision problem is NPcomplete for t=3. We then propose a declarative programming approach to solving the problem to optimality in practice, as well as a heuristic approach, both based on the idpsystem, and assess the performance of both methods on randomly generated data. © 20042012 IEEE."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Kernelizations for the hybridization number problem on multiple nonbinary trees. In WG14, Vol. 8747:299311 of LNCS, springer, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Treeduce, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.4045.



Lavanya Kannan and
Ward C Wheeler. Exactly Computing the Parsimony Scores on Phylogenetic Networks Using Dynamic Programming. In JCB, Vol. 21(4):303319, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, exponential algorithm, from network, from sequences, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction.
Toggle abstract
"Scoring a given phylogenetic network is the first step that is required in searching for the best evolutionary framework for a given dataset. Using the principle of maximum parsimony, we can score phylogenetic networks based on the minimum number of state changes across a subset of edges of the network for each character that are required for a given set of characters to realize the input states at the leaves of the networks. Two such subsets of edges of networks are interesting in light of studying evolutionary histories of datasets: (i) the set of all edges of the network, and (ii) the set of all edges of a spanning tree that minimizes the score. The problems of finding the parsimony scores under these two criteria define slightly different mathematical problems that are both NPhard. In this article, we show that both problems, with scores generalized to adding substitution costs between states on the endpoints of the edges, can be solved exactly using dynamic programming. We show that our algorithms require O(mpk) storage at each vertex (per character), where k is the number of states the character can take, p is the number of reticulate vertices in the network, m = k for the problem with edge set (i), and m = 2 for the problem with edge set (ii). This establishes an O(nmpk2) algorithm for both the problems (n is the number of leaves in the network), which are extensions of Sankoff's algorithm for finding the parsimony scores for phylogenetic trees. We will discuss improvements in the complexities and show that for phylogenetic networks whose underlying undirected graphs have disjoint cycles, the storage at each vertex can be reduced to O(mk), thus making the algorithm polynomial for this class of networks. We will present some properties of the two approaches and guidance on choosing between the criteria, as well as traverse through the network space using either of the definitions. We show that our methodology provides an effective means to study a wide variety of datasets. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014."



Jialiang Yang,
Stefan Grünewald,
Yifei Xu and
XiuFeng Wan. Quartetbased methods to reconstruct phylogenetic networks. In BMC Systems Biology, Vol. 80(21), 2014. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QuartetMethods, Program QuartetNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/17520509821
.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Phylogenetic networks are employed to visualize evolutionary relationships among a group of nucleotide sequences, genes or species when reticulate events like hybridization, recombination, reassortant and horizontal gene transfer are believed to be involved. In comparison to traditional distancebased methods, quartetbased methods consider more information in the reconstruction process and thus have the potential to be more accurate.Results: We introduce QuartetSuite, which includes a set of new quartetbased methods, namely QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM, to reconstruct phylogenetic networks from nucleotide sequences. We tested their performances and compared them with other popular methods on two simulated nucleotide sequence data sets: one generated from a tree topology and the other from a complicated evolutionary history containing three reticulate events. We further validated these methods to two real data sets: a bacterial data set consisting of seven concatenated genes of 36 bacterial species and an influenza data set related to recently emerging H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China.Conclusion: QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM have the potential to accurately reconstruct evolutionary scenarios from simple branching trees to complicated networks containing many reticulate events. These methods could provide insights into the understanding of complicated biological evolutionary processes such as bacterial taxonomy and reassortant of influenza viruses. © 2014 Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Kevin J. Liu,
Jingxuan Dai,
Kathy Truong,
Ying Song,
Michael H. Kohn and
Luay Nakhleh. An HMMBased Comparative Genomic Framework for Detecting Introgression in Eukaryotes. In PLoS ONE, Vol. 10(6):e1003649, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNetHMM. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.7989.
Toggle abstract
"One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on PhyloNetHMMa new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes. PhyloNetHMM combines phylogenetic networks with hidden Markov models (HMMs) to simultaneously capture the (potentially reticulate) evolutionary history of the genomes and dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) genome detected a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgressed genomic regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 9% of all sites within chromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 13 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes). Further, our model detected no introgression in a negative control data set. We also found that our model accurately detected introgression and other evolutionary processes from synthetic data sets simulated under the coalescent model with recombination, isolation, and migration. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism. © 2014 Liu et al."





Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Nela Lekic and
Celine Scornavacca. A practical approximation algorithm for solving massive instances of hybridization number for binary and nonbinary trees. In BMCB, Vol. 15(127):112, 2014. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CycleKiller, Program TerminusEst, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471210515127.



Monika Balvociute,
Andreas Spillner and
Vincent Moulton. FlatNJ: A Novel NetworkBased Approach to Visualize Evolutionary and Biogeographical Relationships. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 63(3):383396, 2014. Keywords: abstract network, flat, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program FlatNJ, Program SplitsTree, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syu001.
Toggle abstract
"Split networks are a type of phylogenetic network that allow visualization of conflict in evolutionary data. We present a new method for constructing such networks called FlatNetJoining (FlatNJ). A key feature of FlatNJ is that it produces networks that can be drawn in the plane in which labels may appear inside of the network. For complex data sets that involve, for example, nonneutral molecular markers, this can allow additional detail to be visualized as compared to previous methods such as split decomposition and NeighborNet. We illustrate the application of FlatNJ by applying it to whole HIV genome sequences, where recombination has taken place, fluorescent proteins in corals, where ancestral sequences are present, and mitochondrial DNA sequences from gall wasps, where biogeographical relationships are of interest. We find that the networks generated by FlatNJ can facilitate the study of genetic variation in the underlying molecular sequence data and, in particular, may help to investigate processes such as intralocus recombination. FlatNJ has been implemented in Java and is freely available at www.uea.ac.uk/computing/software/ flatnj. [flat split system; NeighborNet; Phylogenetic network; QNet; split; split network.] © The Author(s) 2014."



JohannMattis List,
Shijulal NelsonSathi,
Hans Geisler and
William Martin. Networks of lexical borrowing and lateral gene transfer in language and genome evolution. In BioEssays, Vol. 36(2):141150, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, minimal lateral network, phylogenetic network, Program lingpy. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.201300096.
Toggle abstract
"Like biological species, languages change over time. As noted by Darwin, there are many parallels between language evolution and biological evolution. Insights into these parallels have also undergone change in the past 150 years. Just like genes, words change over time, and language evolution can be likened to genome evolution accordingly, but what kind of evolution? There are fundamental differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic evolution. In the former, natural variation entails the gradual accumulation of minor mutations in alleles. In the latter, lateral gene transfer is an integral mechanism of natural variation. The study of language evolution using biological methods has attracted much interest of late, most approaches focusing on language tree construction. These approaches may underestimate the important role that borrowing plays in language evolution. Network approaches that were originally designed to study lateral gene transfer may provide more realistic insights into the complexities of language evolution. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays Linguistic evidence supports date for Homeric epics. © 2014 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc."



Juan Wang. A new algorithm to construct phylogenetic networks from trees. In Genetics and Molecular Research, Vol. 13(1):14561464, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, heuristic, phylogenetic network, Program LNetwork, Program QuickCass, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2014.March.6.4.
Toggle abstract
"Developing appropriate methods for constructing phylogenetic networks from tree sets is an important problem, and much research is currently being undertaken in this area. BIMLR is an algorithm that constructs phylogenetic networks from tree sets. The algorithm can construct a much simpler network than other available methods. Here, we introduce an improved version of the BIMLR algorithm, QuickCass. QuickCass changes the selection strategy of the labels of leaves below the reticulate nodes, i.e., the nodes with an indegree of at least 2 in BIMLR. We show that QuickCass can construct simpler phylogenetic networks than BIMLR. Furthermore, we show that QuickCass is a polynomialtime algorithm when the output network that is constructed by QuickCass is binary. © FUNPECRP."





Adrià Alcalà Mena,
Mercè Llabrés,
Francesc Rosselló and
Pau Rullan. TreeChild Cluster Networks. In Fundamenta Informaticae, Vol. 134(12):115, 2014. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhyloNetwork, reconstruction, treechild network.





Leo van Iersel and
Simone Linz. A quadratic kernel for computing the hybridization number of multiple trees. In IPL, Vol. 113:318323, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, kernelization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Clustistic, Program MaafB, Program PIRN, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4067, poster.
Toggle abstract
"It has recently been shown that the NPhard problem of calculating the minimum number of hybridization events that is needed to explain a set of rooted binary phylogenetic trees by means of a hybridization network is fixedparameter tractable if an instance of the problem consists of precisely two such trees. In this paper, we show that this problem remains fixedparameter tractable for an arbitrarily large set of rooted binary phylogenetic trees. In particular, we present a quadratic kernel. © 2013 Elsevier B.V."



Chris Whidden,
Robert G. Beiko and
Norbert Zeh. FixedParameter Algorithms for Maximum Agreement Forests. In SICOMP, Vol. 42(4):14311466, 2013. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.2664, slides.
Toggle abstract
"We present new and improved fixedparameter algorithms for computing maximum agreement forests of pairs of rooted binary phylogenetic trees. The size of such a forest for two trees corresponds to their subtree pruneandregraft distance and, if the agreement forest is acyclic, to their hybridization number. These distance measures are essential tools for understanding reticulate evolution. Our algorithm for computing maximum acyclic agreement forests is the first depthbounded search algorithm for this problem. Our algorithms substantially outperform the best previous algorithms for these problems. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics."



Stefan Grünewald,
Andreas Spillner,
Sarah Bastkowski,
Anja Bögershausen and
Vincent Moulton. SuperQ: Computing Supernetworks from Quartets. In TCBB, Vol. 10(1):151160, 2013. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from quartets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, Program SplitsTree, Program SuperQ, software, split network.
Toggle abstract
"Supertrees are a commonly used tool in phylogenetics to summarize collections of partial phylogenetic trees. As a generalization of supertrees, phylogenetic supernetworks allow, in addition, the visual representation of conflict between the trees that is not possible to observe with a single tree. Here, we introduce SuperQ, a new method for constructing such supernetworks (SuperQ is freely available at >www.uea.ac.uk/computing/superq.). It works by first breaking the input trees into quartet trees, and then stitching these together to form a special kind of phylogenetic network, called a split network. This stitching process is performed using an adaptation of the QNet method for split network reconstruction employing a novel approach to use the branch lengths from the input trees to estimate the branch lengths in the resulting network. Compared with previous supernetwork methods, SuperQ has the advantage of producing a planar network. We compare the performance of SuperQ to the Zclosure and Qimputation supernetwork methods, and also present an analysis of some published data sets as an illustration of its applicability. © 20042012 IEEE."



Yufeng Wu. An Algorithm for Constructing Parsimonious Hybridization Networks with Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In RECOMB13, Vol. 7821:291303 of LNCS, springer, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, exponential algorithm, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, reconstruction. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/ExactNetRecomb2013.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic network is a model for reticulate evolution. Hybridization network is one type of phylogenetic network for a set of discordant gene trees, and "displays" each gene tree. A central computational problem on hybridization networks is: given a set of gene trees, reconstruct the minimum (i.e. most parsimonious) hybridization network that displays each given gene tree. This problem is known to be NPhard, and existing approaches for this problem are either heuristics or make simplifying assumptions (e.g. work with only two input trees or assume some topological properties). In this paper, we develop an exact algorithm (called PIRNC ) for inferring the minimum hybridization networks from multiple gene trees. The PIRNC algorithm does not rely on structural assumptions. To the best of our knowledge, PIRN C is the first exact algorithm for this formulation. When the number of reticulation events is relatively small (say four or fewer), PIRNC runs reasonably efficient even for moderately large datasets. For building more complex networks, we also develop a heuristic version of PIRNC called PIRNCH. Simulation shows that PIRNCH usually produces networks with fewer reticulation events than those by an existing method. © 2013 SpringerVerlag."







ThiHau Nguyen,
Vincent Ranwez,
Stéphanie Pointet,
AnneMuriel Chifolleau Arigon,
JeanPhilippe Doyon and
Vincent Berry. Reconciliation and local gene tree rearrangement can be of mutual profit. In ALMOB, Vol. 8(12), 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, Program MowgliNNI, Program Prunier, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"Background: Reconciliation methods compare gene trees and species trees to recover evolutionary events such as duplications, transfers and losses explaining the history and composition of genomes. It is wellknown that gene trees inferred from molecular sequences can be partly erroneous due to incorrect sequence alignments as well as phylogenetic reconstruction artifacts such as long branch attraction. In practice, this leads reconciliation methods to overestimate the number of evolutionary events. Several methods have been proposed to circumvent this problem, by collapsing the unsupported edges and then resolving the obtained multifurcating nodes, or by directly rearranging the binary gene trees. Yet these methods have been defined for models of evolution accounting only for duplications and losses, i.e. can not be applied to handle prokaryotic gene families.Results: We propose a reconciliation method accounting for gene duplications, losses and horizontal transfers, that specifically takes into account the uncertainties in gene trees by rearranging their weakly supported edges. Rearrangements are performed on edges having a low confidence value, and are accepted whenever they improve the reconciliation cost. We prove useful properties on the dynamic programming matrix used to compute reconciliations, which allows to speedup the tree space exploration when rearrangements are generated by Nearest Neighbor Interchanges (NNI) edit operations. Experiments on synthetic data show that gene trees modified by such NNI rearrangements are closer to the correct simulated trees and lead to better event predictions on average. Experiments on real data demonstrate that the proposed method leads to a decrease in the reconciliation cost and the number of inferred events. Finally on a dataset of 30 k gene families, this reconciliation method shows a ranking of prokaryotic phyla by transfer rates identical to that proposed by a different approach dedicated to transfer detection [BMCBIOINF 11:324, 2010, PNAS 109(13):49624967, 2012].Conclusions: Prokaryotic gene trees can now be reconciled with their species phylogeny while accounting for the uncertainty of the gene tree. More accurate and more precise reconciliations are obtained with respect to previous parsimony algorithms not accounting for such uncertainties [LNCS 6398:93108, 2010, BIOINF 28(12): i283i291, 2012].A software implementing the method is freely available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/Mowgli/. © 2013 Nguyen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Mukul S. Bansal,
Guy Banay,
Timothy J. Harlow,
J. Peter Gogarten and
Ron Shamir. Systematic inference of highways of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. In BIO, Vol. 29(5):571579, 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from species tree, from unrooted trees, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HiDe, Program RANGERDTL, reconstruction. Note: http://people.csail.mit.edu/mukul/Bansal_Highways_Bioinformatics_2013.pdf.



Juan Wang,
Maozu Guo,
Xiaoyan Liu,
Yang Liu,
Chunyu Wang,
Linlin Xing and
Kai Che. LNETWORK: An Efficient and Effective Method for Constructing Phylogenetic Networks. In BIO, Vol. 29(18):22692276, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LNetwork, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"Motivation: The evolutionary history of species is traditionally represented with a rooted phylogenetic tree. Each tree comprises a set of clusters, i.e. subsets of the species that are descended from a common ancestor. When rooted phylogenetic trees are built from several different datasets (e.g. from different genes), the clusters are often conflicting. These conflicting clusters cannot be expressed as a simple phylogenetic tree; however, they can be expressed in a phylogenetic network. Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that can account for processes such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer and recombination, which are difficult to represent in standard treelike models of evolutionary histories. There is currently a large body of research aimed at developing appropriate methods for constructing phylogenetic networks from cluster sets. The Cass algorithm can construct a much simpler network than other available methods, but is extremely slow for large datasets or for datasets that need lots of reticulate nodes. The networks constructed by Cass are also greatly dependent on the order of input data, i.e. it generally derives different phylogenetic networks for the same dataset when different input orders are used.Results: In this study, we introduce an improved Cass algorithm, Lnetwork, which can construct a phylogenetic network for a given set of clusters. We show that Lnetwork is significantly faster than Cass and effectively weakens the influence of input data order. Moreover, we show that Lnetwork can construct a much simpler network than most of the other available methods. © The Author 2013."



Juan Wang,
Maozu Guo,
Linlin Xing,
Kai Che,
Xiaoyan Liu and
Chunyu Wang. BIMLR: A Method for Constructing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks from Rooted Phylogenetic Trees. In Gene, Vol. 527(1):344351, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program BIMLR, Program Dendroscope, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"Rooted phylogenetic trees constructed from different datasets (e.g. from different genes) are often conflicting with one another, i.e. they cannot be integrated into a single phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic networks have become an important tool in molecular evolution, and rooted phylogenetic networks are able to represent conflicting rooted phylogenetic trees. Hence, the development of appropriate methods to compute rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has attracted considerable research interest of late. The CASS algorithm proposed by van Iersel et al. is able to construct much simpler networks than other available methods, but it is extremely slow, and the networks it constructs are dependent on the order of the input data. Here, we introduce an improved CASS algorithm, BIMLR. We show that BIMLR is faster than CASS and less dependent on the input data order. Moreover, BIMLR is able to construct much simpler networks than almost all other methods. BIMLR is available at http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/wangjuan/BIMLR/. © 2013 Elsevier B.V."



ZhiZhong Chen and
Lusheng Wang. An Ultrafast Tool for Minimum Reticulate Networks. In JCB, Vol. 20(1):3841, 2013. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program ultraNet, reconstruction. Note: http://www.cs.cityu.edu.hk/~lwang/research/jcb2013.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying different genes of a set of species may yield two or more related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the trees into a reticulate network with the fewest hybridization events. In this article, we develop a software tool (named UltraNet) for several fundamental problems related to the construction of minimum reticulate networks from two or more phylogenetic trees. Our experimental results show that UltraNet is much faster than all previous tools for these problems. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc."





Alexey A. Morozov,
Yuri P. Galachyants and
Yelena V. Likhoshway. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks from Gene Order Data. In BMRI, Vol. 2013(503193):17, 2013. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, from gene order, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split decomposition, split network.
Toggle abstract
"Existing algorithms allow us to infer phylogenetic networks from sequences (DNA, protein or binary), sets of trees, and distance matrices, but there are no methods to build them using the gene order data as an input. Here we describe several methods to build split networks from the gene order data, perform simulation studies, and use our methods for analyzing and interpreting different real gene order datasets. All proposed methods are based on intermediate data, which can be generated from genome structures under study and used as an input for network construction algorithms. Three intermediates are used: set of jackknife trees, distance matrix, and binary encoding. According to simulations and case studies, the best intermediates are jackknife trees and distance matrix (when used with NeighborNet algorithm). Binary encoding can also be useful, but only when the methods mentioned above cannot be used. © 2013 Alexey Anatolievich Morozov et al."



Celine Scornavacca,
Paprotny Wojciech,
Vincent Berry and
Vincent Ranwez. Representing a set of reconciliations in a compact way. In JBCB, Vol. 11(2):1250025, 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, from species tree, phylogeny, Program GraphDTL, Program TERA, visualization. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00818801.
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"Comparative genomic studies are often conducted by reconciliation analyses comparing gene and species trees. One of the issues with reconciliation approaches is that an exponential number of optimal scenarios is possible. The resulting complexity is masked by the fact that a majority of reconciliation software pick up a random optimal solution that is returned to the enduser. However, the alternative solutions should not be ignored since they tell different stories that parsimony considers as viable as the output solution. In this paper, we describe a polynomial space and time algorithm to build a minimum reconciliation grapha graph that summarizes the set of all most parsimonious reconciliations. Amongst numerous applications, it is shown how this graph allows counting the number of nonequivalent most parsimonious reconciliations. © 2013 Imperial College Press."



ThiHau Nguyen. Réconciliations: corriger des arbres de gènes et inférer la fiabilité des événements évolutifs. PhD thesis, Université Montpellier 2, France, 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Mowgli, Program MowgliNNI, reconstruction. Note: http://www.biumontpellier.fr/florabium/servlet/DocumentFileManager?source=ged&document=ged:IDOCS:247665&resolution=&recordId=theses%3ABIU_THESE%3A1789&file=.



Alberto Apostolico,
Matteo Comin,
Andreas W. M. Dress and
Laxmi Parida. Ultrametric networks: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis. In Algorithms for Molecular Biology, Vol. 8(7):110, 2013. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Ultranet. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748718887.
Toggle abstract
"Background: The large majority of optimization problems related to the inference of distancebased trees used in phylogenetic analysis and classification is known to be intractable. One noted exception is found within the realm of ultrametric distances. The introduction of ultrametric trees in phylogeny was inspired by a model of evolution driven by the postulate of a molecular clock, now dismissed, whereby phylogeny could be represented by a weighted tree in which the sum of the weights of the edges separating any given leaf from the root is the same for all leaves. Both, molecular clocks and rooted ultrametric trees, fell out of fashion as credible representations of evolutionary change. At the same time, ultrametric dendrograms have shown good potential for purposes of classification in so far as they have proven to provide good approximations for additive trees. Most of these approximations are still intractable, but the problem of finding the nearest ultrametric distance matrix to a given distance matrix with respect to the L∞ distance has been long known to be solvable in polynomial time, the solution being incarnated in any minimum spanning tree for the weighted graph subtending to the matrix.Results: This paper expands this subdominant ultrametric perspective by studying ultrametric networks, consisting of the collection of all edges involved in some minimum spanning tree. It is shown that, for a graph with n vertices, the construction of such a network can be carried out by a simple algorithm in optimal time O(n2) which is faster by a factor of n than the direct adaptation of the classical O(n3) paradigm by Warshall for computing the transitive closure of a graph. This algorithm, called UltraNet, will be shown to be easily adapted to compute relaxed networks and to support the introduction of artificial points to reduce the maximum distance between vertices in a pair. Finally, a few experiments will be discussed to demonstrate the applicability of subdominant ultrametric networks.Availability: http://www.dei.unipd.it/~ciompin/main/Ultranet/Ultranet.html. © 2013 Apostolico et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Mehdi Layeghifard,
Pedro R. PeresNeto and
Vladimir Makarenkov. Inferring explicit weighted consensus networks to represent alternative evolutionary histories. In BMCEB, Vol. 13(274):125, 2013. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program ConsensusNetwork, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471214813274.
Toggle abstract
"Background: The advent of molecular biology techniques and constant increase in availability of genetic material have triggered the development of many phylogenetic tree inference methods. However, several reticulate evolution processes, such as horizontal gene transfer and hybridization, have been shown to blur the species evolutionary history by causing discordance among phylogenies inferred from different genes. Methods. To tackle this problem, we hereby describe a new method for inferring and representing alternative (reticulate) evolutionary histories of species as an explicit weighted consensus network which can be constructed from a collection of gene trees with or without prior knowledge of the species phylogeny. Results: We provide a way of building a weighted phylogenetic network for each of the following reticulation mechanisms: diploid hybridization, intragenic recombination and complete or partial horizontal gene transfer. We successfully tested our method on some synthetic and real datasets to infer the abovementioned evolutionary events which may have influenced the evolution of many species. Conclusions: Our weighted consensus network inference method allows one to infer, visualize and validate statistically major conflicting signals induced by the mechanisms of reticulate evolution. The results provided by the new method can be used to represent the inferred conflicting signals by means of explicit and easytointerpret phylogenetic networks. © 2013 Layeghifard et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Gergely J. Szöllösi,
Wojciech Rosikiewicz,
Bastien Boussau,
Eric Tannier and
Vincent Daubin. Efficient Exploration of the Space of Reconciled Gene Trees. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 62(6):901912, 2013. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, lateral gene transfer, likelihood, loss, phylogeny, Program ALE, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.2167.
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"Gene trees record the combination of genelevel events, such as duplication, transfer and loss (DTL), and specieslevel events, such as speciation and extinction. Gene treespecies tree reconciliation methods model these processes by drawing gene trees into the species tree using a series of gene and specieslevel events. The reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alone almost always involves choosing between statistically equivalent or weakly distinguishable relationships that could be much better resolved based on a putative species tree. To exploit this potential for accurate reconstruction of gene trees, the space of reconciled gene trees must be explored according to a joint model of sequence evolution and gene treespecies tree reconciliation. Here we present amalgamated likelihood estimation (ALE), a probabilistic approach to exhaustively explore all reconciled gene trees that can be amalgamated as a combination of clades observed in a sample of gene trees. We implement the ALE approach in the context of a reconciliation model (Szöllo{double acute}si et al. 2013), which allows for the DTL of genes. We use ALE to efficiently approximate the sum of the joint likelihood over amalgamations and to find the reconciled gene tree that maximizes the joint likelihood among all such trees. We demonstrate using simulations that gene trees reconstructed using the joint likelihood are substantially more accurate than those reconstructed using sequence alone. Using realistic gene tree topologies, branch lengths, and alignment sizes, we demonstrate that ALE produces more accurate gene trees even if the model of sequence evolution is greatly simplified. Finally, examining 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacterial genomes we find that joint likelihoodbased inference results in a striking reduction in apparent phylogenetic discord, with respectively. 24%, 59%, and 46% reductions in the mean numbers of duplications, transfers, and losses per gene family. The open source implementation of ALE is available from https://github.com/ssolo/ALE.git. © The Author(s) 2013."





Sarah Bastkowski. From Trees to Networks and Back. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, 2013. Keywords: abstract network, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program FlatNJ, Program QNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, software, split network. Note: http://spectresuiteofphylogenetictoolsforreticulateevolution.readthedocs.io/en/latest/_downloads/spectre_bastkowskis_thesis.pdf.



Steven Kelk,
Celine Scornavacca and
Leo van Iersel. On the elusiveness of clusters. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):517534, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from clusters, from rooted trees, from triplets, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Clustistic, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.1834.



Andreas Spillner,
Binh T. Nguyen and
Vincent Moulton. Constructing and Drawing Regular Planar Split Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):395407, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from splits, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, visualization. Note: slides and presentation available at http://www.newton.ac.uk/programmes/PLG/seminars/062111501.html.
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"Split networks are commonly used to visualize collections of bipartitions, also called splits, of a finite set. Such collections arise, for example, in evolutionary studies. Split networks can be viewed as a generalization of phylogenetic trees and may be generated using the SplitsTree package. Recently, the NeighborNet method for generating split networks has become rather popular, in part because it is guaranteed to always generate a circular split system, which can always be displayed by a planar split network. Even so, labels must be placed on the "outside" of the network, which might be problematic in some applications. To help circumvent this problem, it can be helpful to consider socalled flat split systems, which can be displayed by planar split networks where labels are allowed on the inside of the network too. Here, we present a new algorithm that is guaranteed to compute a minimal planar split network displaying a flat split system in polynomial time, provided the split system is given in a certain format. We will also briefly discuss two heuristics that could be useful for analyzing phylogeographic data and that allow the computation of flat split systems in this format in polynomial time. © 2006 IEEE."



Paul Phipps and
Sergey Bereg. Optimizing Phylogenetic Networks for Circular Split Systems. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):535547, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, from splits, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PhippsNetwork, reconstruction, software.
Toggle abstract
"We address the problem of realizing a given distance matrix by a planar phylogenetic network with a minimum number of faces. With the help of the popular software SplitsTree4, we start by approximating the distance matrix with a distance metric that is a linear combination of circular splits. The main results of this paper are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a network with a single face. We show how such a network can be constructed, and we present a heuristic for constructing a network with few faces using the first algorithm as the base case. Experimental results on biological data show that this heuristic algorithm can produce phylogenetic networks with far fewer faces than the ones computed by SplitsTree4, without affecting the approximation of the distance matrix. © 2012 IEEE."



Celine Scornavacca,
Simone Linz and
Benjamin Albrecht. A first step towards computing all hybridization networks for two rooted binary phylogenetic trees. In JCB, Vol. 19:12271242, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program Hybroscale, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.3268.
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"Recently, considerable effort has been put into developing fast algorithms to reconstruct a rooted phylogenetic network that explains two rooted phylogenetic trees and has a minimum number of hybridization vertices. With the standard app1235roach to tackle this problem being combinatorial, the reconstructed network is rarely unique. From a biological point of view, it is therefore of importance to not only compute one network, but all possible networks. In this article, we make a first step toward approaching this goal by presenting the first algorithmcalled allMAAFsthat calculates all maximumacyclicagreement forests for two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012."



ZhiZhong Chen and
Lusheng Wang. Algorithms for Reticulate Networks of Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In TCBB, Vol. 9(2):372384, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CMPT, Program MaafB, reconstruction, software. Note: http://rnc.r.dendai.ac.jp/~chen/papers/rMaaf.pdf.
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"A reticulate network N of multiple phylogenetic trees may have nodes with two or more parents (called reticulation nodes). There are two ways to define the reticulation number of N. One way is to define it as the number of reticulation nodes in N in this case, a reticulate network with the smallest reticulation number is called an optimal typeI reticulate network of the trees. The better way is to define it as the total number of parents of reticulation nodes in N minus the number of reticulation nodes in N ; in this case, a reticulate network with the smallest reticulation number is called an optimal typeII reticulate network of the trees. In this paper, we first present a fast fixedparameter algorithm for constructing one or all optimal typeI reticulate networks of multiple phylogenetic trees. We then use the algorithm together with other ideas to obtain an algorithm for estimating a lower bound on the reticulation number of an optimal typeII reticulate network of the input trees. To our knowledge, these are the first fixedparameter algorithms for the problems. We have implemented the algorithms in ANSI C, obtaining programs CMPT and MaafB. Our experimental data show that CMPT can construct optimal typeI reticulate networks rapidly and MaafB can compute better lower bounds for optimal typeII reticulate networks within shorter time than the previously best program PIRN designed by Wu. © 2006 IEEE."



Changiz Eslahchi,
Reza Hassanzadeh,
Ehsan Mottaghi,
Mahnaz Habibi,
Hamid Pezeshk and
Mehdi Sadeghi. Constructing circular phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets using simulated annealing. In MBIO, Vol. 235(2):123127, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SAQNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2011.11.003.
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"In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm based on the simulated annealing, SAQNet, as a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets. Similar to QNet algorithm, SAQNet constructs a collection of circular weighted splits of the taxa set. This collection is represented by a split network. In order to show that SAQNet performs better than QNet, we apply these algorithm to both the simulated and actual data sets containing salmonella, Bees, Primates and Rubber data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree4 and compare the results. We find that SAQNet produces a better circular ordering and phylogenetic networks than QNet in most cases. SAQNet has been implemented in Matlab and is available for download at http://bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/saq.net. © 2011 Elsevier Inc."



Benjamin Albrecht,
Celine Scornavacca,
Alberto Cenci and
Daniel H. Huson. Fast computation of minimum hybridization networks. In BIO, Vol. 28(2):191197, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program Hybroscale, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btr618.
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"Motivation: Hybridization events in evolution may lead to incongruent gene trees. One approach to determining possible interspecific hybridization events is to compute a hybridization network that attempts to reconcile incongruent gene trees using a minimum number of hybridization events. Results: We describe how to compute a representative set of minimum hybridization networks for two given bifurcating input trees, using a parallel algorithm and provide a userfriendly implementation. A simulation study suggests that our program performs significantly better than existing software on biologically relevant data. Finally, we demonstrate the application of such methods in the context of the evolution of the Aegilops/Triticum genera. Availability and implementation: The algorithm is implemented in the program Dendroscope 3, which is freely available from www.dendroscope.org and runs on all three major operating systems. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Steven Kelk,
Leo van Iersel,
Nela Lekic,
Simone Linz,
Celine Scornavacca and
Leen Stougie. Cycle killer... qu'estce que c'est? On the comparative approximability of hybridization number and directed feedback vertex set. In SIDMA, Vol. 26(4):16351656, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, from rooted trees, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CycleKiller, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.5359, about the title.
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"We show that the problem of computing the hybridization number of two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa X has a constant factor polynomialtime approximation if and only if the problem of computing a minimumsize feedback vertex set in a directed graph (DFVS) has a constant factor polynomialtime approximation. The latter problem, which asks for a minimum number of vertices to be removed from a directed graph to transform it into a directed acyclic graph, is one of the problems in Karp's seminal 1972 list of 21 NPcomplete problems. Despite considerable attention from the combinatorial optimization community, it remains to this day unknown whether a constant factor polynomialtime approximation exists for DFVS. Our result thus places the (in)approximability of hybridization number in a much broader complexity context, and as a consequence we obtain that it inherits inapproximability results from the problem Vertex Cover. On the positive side, we use results from the DFVS literature to give an O(log r log log r) approximation for the hybridization number where r is the correct value. Copyright © by SIAM."



Hyun Jung Park and
Luay Nakhleh. MURPAR: A fast heuristic for inferring parsimonious phylogenetic networks from multiple gene trees. In ISBRA12, Vol. 7292:213224 of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, software. Note: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hyun_Jung_Park2/publication/262318595_MURPAR_A_Fast_Heuristic_for_Inferring_Parsimonious_Phylogenetic_Networks_from_Multiple_Gene_Trees/links/54b7e7b50cf269d8cbf58cc4.pdf.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks provide a graphical representation of evolutionary histories that involve nontreelike evolutionary events, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One approach for inferring phylogenetic networks is based on reconciling gene trees, assuming all incongruence among the gene trees is due to HGT. Several mathematical results and algorithms, both exact and heuristic, have been introduced to construct and analyze phylogenetic networks. Here, we address the computational problem of inferring phylogenetic networks with minimum reticulations from a collection of gene trees. As this problem is known to be NPhard even for a pair of gene trees, the problem at hand is very hard. In this paper, we present an efficient heuristic, MURPAR, for inferring a phylogenetic network from a collection of gene trees by using pairwise reconciliations of trees in the collection. Given the development of efficient and accurate methods for pairwise gene tree reconciliations, MURPAR inherits this efficiency and accuracy. Further, the method includes a formulation for combining pairwise reconciliations that is naturally amenable to an efficient integer linear programming (ILP) solution. We show that MURPAR produces more accurate results than other methods and is at least as fast, when run on synthetic and biological data. We believe that our method is especially important for rapidly obtaining estimates of genomescale evolutionary histories that can be further refined by more detailed and computeintensive methods. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Mukul S. Bansal,
Eric J. Alm and
Manolis Kellis. Efficient Algorithms for the Reconciliation Problem with Gene Duplication, Horizontal Transfer, and Loss. In ISMB12, Vol. 28(12):i283i291 of BIO, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Angst, Program Mowgli, Program RANGERDTL, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts225.
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"Motivation: Gene family evolution is driven by evolutionary events such as speciation, gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer and gene loss, and inferring these events in the evolutionary history of a given gene family is a fundamental problem in comparative and evolutionary genomics with numerous important applications. Solving this problem requires the use of a reconciliation framework, where the input consists of a gene family phylogeny and the corresponding species phylogeny, and the goal is to reconcile the two by postulating speciation, gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer and gene loss events. This reconciliation problem is referred to as duplicationtransferloss (DTL) reconciliation and has been extensively studied in the literature. Yet, even the fastest existing algorithms for DTL reconciliation are too slow for reconciling large gene families and for use in more sophisticated applications such as gene tree or species tree reconstruction.Results: We present two new algorithms for the DTL reconciliation problem that are dramatically faster than existing algorithms, both asymptotically and in practice. We also extend the standard DTL reconciliation model by considering distancedependent transfer costs, which allow for more accurate reconciliation and give an efficient algorithm for DTL reconciliation under this extended model. We implemented our new algorithms and demonstrated up to 100 000fold speedup over existing methods, using both simulated and biological datasets. This dramatic improvement makes it possible to use DTL reconciliation for performing rigorous evolutionary analyses of large gene families and enables its use in advanced reconciliationbased gene and species tree reconstruction methods. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press."



Reza Hassanzadeh,
Changiz Eslahchi and
WingKin Sung. Constructing phylogenetic supernetworks based on simulated annealing. In MPE, Vol. 63(3):738744, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.009.
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Different partial phylogenetic trees can be derived from different sources of evidence and different methods. One important problem is to summarize these partial phylogenetic trees using a supernetwork. We propose a novel simulated annealing based method called SNSA which uses an optimization function to produce a simple network that still retains a great deal of phylogenetic information. We report the performance of this new method on real and simulated datasets. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.



Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk,
Nela Lekic and
Celine Scornavacca. A practical approximation algorithm for solving massive instances of hybridization number. In WABI12, Vol. 7534(430440) of LNCS, springer, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, approximation, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program CycleKiller, Program Dendroscope, Program HybridNET, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.3417.
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"Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. In practice, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with reticulation number larger than 40. For such instances, one has to resort to heuristics and approximation algorithms. Here we present the algorithm CycleKiller which is the first approximation algorithm that can produce solutions verifiably close to optimality for instances with hundreds or even thousands of reticulations. Theoretically, the algorithm is an exponentialtime 2approximation (or 4approximation in its fastest mode). However, using simulations we demonstrate that in practice the algorithm runs quickly for large and difficult instances, producing solutions within one percent of optimality. An implementation of this algorithm, which extends the theoretical work of [14], has been made publicly available. © 2012 SpringerVerlag."



Lavanya Kannan and
Ward C Wheeler. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic Networks. In ALMOB, Vol. 7:9, 2012. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748718879.
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"Background: Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a characterbased approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past.Results: In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain wellknown algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores.Conclusion: The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are common to all the branching patterns introduced by the reticulate vertices. Thus the score contains an inbuilt cost for the number of reticulate vertices in the network, and would provide a criterion that is comparable among all networks. Although the problem of finding the parsimony score on the network is believed to be computationally hard to solve, heuristics such as the ones described here would be beneficial in our efforts to find a most parsimonious network. © 2012 Kannan and Wheeler; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



ZhiZhong Chen,
Lusheng Wang and
Satoshi Yamanaka. A fast tool for minimum hybridization networks. In BMCB, Vol. 13:155, 2012. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program FastHN, reconstruction, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471210513155.
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"Background: Due to hybridization events in evolution, studying two different genes of a set of species may yield two related but different phylogenetic trees for the set of species. In this case, we want to combine the two phylogenetic trees into a hybridization network with the fewest hybridization events. This leads to three computational problems, namely, the problem of computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, the problem of constructing one minimum hybridization network, and the problem of enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. The previously best software tools for these problems (namely, Chen and Wang's HybridNet and Albrecht et al.'s Dendroscope 3) run very slowly for large instances that cannot be reduced to relatively small instances. Indeed, when the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is larger than 23 and the problem for the trees cannot be reduced to relatively smaller independent subproblems, then HybridNet almost always takes longer than 1 day and Dendroscope 3 often fails to complete. Thus, a faster software tool for the problems is in need.Results: We develop a software tool in ANSI C, named FastHN, for the following problems: Computing the minimum size of a hybridization network, constructing one minimum hybridization network, and enumerating a representative set of minimum hybridization networks. We obtain FastHN by refining HybridNet with three ideas. The first idea is to preprocess the input trees so that the trees become smaller or the problem becomes to solve two or more relatively smaller independent subproblems. The second idea is to use a fast algorithm for computing the rSPR distance of two given phylognetic trees to cut more branches of the search tree in the exhaustivesearch stage of the algorithm. The third idea is that during the exhaustivesearch stage of the algorithm, we find two sibling leaves in one of the two forests (obtained from the given trees by cutting some edges) such that they are as far as possible in the other forest. As the result, FastHN always runs much faster than HybridNet. Unlike Dendroscope 3, FastHN is a singlethreaded program. Despite this disadvantage, our experimental data shows that FastHN runs substantially faster than the multithreaded Dendroscope 3 on a PC with multiple cores. Indeed, FastHN can finish within 16 minutes (on average on a Windows7 (x64) desktop PC with i72600 CPU) even if the minimum size of a hybridization network of two given trees is about 25, the trees each have 100 leaves, and the problem for the input trees cannot be reduced to two or more independent subproblems via cluster reductions. It is also worth mentioning that like HybridNet, FastHN does not use much memory (indeed, the amount of memory is at most quadratic in the input size). In contrast, Dendroscope 3 uses a huge amount of memory. Executables of FastHN for Windows XP (x86), Windows 7 (x64), Linux, and Mac OS are available (see the Results and discussion section for details).Conclusions: For both biological datasets and simulated datasets, our experimental results show that FastHN runs substantially faster than HybridNet and Dendroscope 3. The superiority of FastHN in speed over the previous tools becomes more significant as the hybridization number becomes larger. In addition, FastHN uses much less memory than Dendroscope 3 and uses the same amount of memory as HybridNet. © 2012 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Maureen Stolzer,
Han Lai,
Minli Xu,
Deepa Sathaye,
Benjamin Vernot and
Dannie Durand. Inferring Duplications, Losses, Transfers, and Incomplete Lineage Sorting with NonBinary Species Trees. In ECCB12, Vol. 28(18):i409i415 of BIO, 2012. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from rooted trees, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Notung, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts386.
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"Motivation: Gene duplication (D), transfer (T), loss (L) and incomplete lineage sorting (I) are crucial to the evolution of gene families and the emergence of novel functions.The history of these events can be inferred via comparison of gene and species trees, a process called reconciliation, yet current reconciliation algorithms model only a subset of these evolutionary processes. Results: We present an algorithm to reconcile a binary gene tree with a nonbinary species tree under a DTLI parsimony criterion. This is the first reconciliation algorithm to capture all four evolutionary processes driving tree incongruence and the first to reconcile nonbinary species trees with a transfer model. Our algorithm infers all optimal solutions and reports complete, temporally feasible event histories, giving the gene and species lineages in which each event occurred. It is fixedparameter tractable, with polytime complexity when the maximum species outdegree is fixed. Application of our algorithms to prokaryotic and eukaryotic data show that use of an incomplete event model has substantial impact on the events inferred and resulting biological conclusions. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press."





Adrià Alcalà Mena. Trivalent Graph isomorphism in polynomial time. Master's thesis, Universidad de Cantabria, Spain, 2012. Keywords: distance between networks, explicit network, from network, isomorphism, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program SAGE. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.1040.



Joseph K. Pickrell and
Jonathan K. Pritchard. Inference of Population Splits and Mixtures from GenomeWide Allele Frequency Data. In PLoS Genetics, Vol. 8(11):e1002967, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, heuristic, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, population genetics, Program TreeMix. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002967.
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"Many aspects of the historical relationships between populations in a species are reflected in genetic data. Inferring these relationships from genetic data, however, remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a statistical model for inferring the patterns of population splits and mixtures in multiple populations. In our model, the sampled populations in a species are related to their common ancestor through a graph of ancestral populations. Using genomewide allele frequency data and a Gaussian approximation to genetic drift, we infer the structure of this graph. We applied this method to a set of 55 human populations and a set of 82 dog breeds and wild canids. In both species, we show that a simple bifurcating tree does not fully describe the data; in contrast, we infer many migration events. While some of the migration events that we find have been detected previously, many have not. For example, in the human data, we infer that Cambodians trace approximately 16% of their ancestry to a population ancestral to other extant East Asian populations. In the dog data, we infer that both the boxer and basenji trace a considerable fraction of their ancestry (9% and 25%, respectively) to wolves subsequent to domestication and that East Asian toy breeds (the Shih Tzu and the Pekingese) result from admixture between modern toy breeds and "ancient" Asian breeds. Software implementing the model described here, called TreeMix, is available at http://treemix.googlecode.com. © 2012 Pickrell, Pritchard."



Nick J. Patterson,
Priya Moorjani,
Yontao Luo,
Swapan Mallick,
Nadin Rohland,
Yiping Zhan,
Teri Genschoreck,
Teresa Webster and
David Reich. Ancient Admixture in Human History. In Genetics, Vol. 192(3):10651093, 2012. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, population genetics, Program AdmixTools. Note: http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reich/Reich_Lab/Welcome_files/2012_Patterson_AncientAdmixture_Genetics.pdf.
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"Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to presentday Basques and Sardinians and the other related to presentday populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean "Iceman." © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America."





Fenglou Mao,
David Williams,
Olga Zhaxybayeva,
Maria S. Poptsova,
Pascal Lapierre,
J. Peter Gogarten and
Ying Xu. Quartet decomposition server: a platform for analyzing phylogenetic trees. In BMCB, Vol. 13:123, 2012. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Quartet Decomposition, reconstruction, software, split network.
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"Background: The frequent exchange of genetic material among prokaryotes means that extracting a majority or plurality phylogenetic signal from many gene families, and the identification of gene families that are in significant conflict with the plurality signal is a frequent task in comparative genomics, and especially in phylogenomic analyses. Decomposition of gene trees into embedded quartets (unrooted trees each with four taxa) is a convenient and statistically powerful technique to address this challenging problem. This approach was shown to be useful in several studies of completely sequenced microbial genomes.Results: We present here a web server that takes a collection of gene phylogenies, decomposes them into quartets, generates a Quartet Spectrum, and draws a split network. Users are also provided with various data download options for further analyses. Each gene phylogeny is to be represented by an assessment of phylogenetic information content, such as sets of trees reconstructed from bootstrap replicates or sampled from a posterior distribution. The Quartet Decomposition server is accessible at http://quartets.uga.edu.Conclusions: The Quartet Decomposition server presented here provides a convenient means to perform Quartet Decomposition analyses and will empower users to find statistically supported phylogenetic conflicts. © 2012 Mao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Katharina Huber,
Leo van Iersel,
Steven Kelk and
Radoslaw Suchecki. A Practical Algorithm for Reconstructing Level1 Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 8(3):607620, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, generation, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LEV1ATHAN, Program Lev1Generator, reconstruction, software. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.4067.
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"Recently, much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here, we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level1 phylogenetic networksa type of network slightly more general than a phylogenetic treefrom triplets. Our algorithm has been made publicly available as the program Lev1athan. It combines ideas from several known theoretical algorithms for phylogenetic tree and network reconstruction with two novel subroutines. Namely, an exponentialtime exact and a greedy algorithm both of which are of independent theoretical interest. Most importantly, Lev1athan runs in polynomial time and always constructs a level1 network. If the data are consistent with a phylogenetic tree, then the algorithm constructs such a tree. Moreover, if the input triplet set is dense and, in addition, is fully consistent with some level1 network, it will find such a network. The potential of Lev1athan is explored by means of an extensive simulation study and a biological data set. One of our conclusions is that Lev1athan is able to construct networks consistent with a high percentage of input triplets, even when these input triplets are affected by a low to moderate level of noise. © 2011 IEEE."



Josh Voorkamp né Collins,
Simone Linz and
Charles Semple. Quantifying hybridization in realistic time. In JCB, Vol. 18(10):13051318, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, software. Note: http://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/~linzs/CLS10_interleave.pdf, software available at http://www.math.canterbury.ac.nz/~c.semple/software.shtml.
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"Recently, numerous practical and theoretical studies in evolutionary biology aim at calculating the extent to which reticulationfor example, horizontal gene transfer, hybridization, or recombinationhas influenced the evolution for a set of presentday species. It has been shown that inferring the minimum number of hybridization events that is needed to simultaneously explain the evolutionary history for a set of trees is an NPhard and also fixedparameter tractable problem. In this article, we give a new fixedparameter algorithm for computing the minimum number of hybridization events for when two rooted binary phylogenetic trees are given. This newly developed algorithm is based on interleavinga technique using repeated kernelization steps that are applied throughout the exhaustive search part of a fixedparameter algorithm. To show that our algorithm runs efficiently to be applicable to a wide range of practical problem instances, we apply it to a grass data set and highlight the significant improvements in terms of running times in comparison to an algorithm that has previously been implemented. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc."



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Constructing the Simplest Possible Phylogenetic Network from Triplets. In ALG, Vol. 60(2):207235, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Marlon, Program Simplistic. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s0045300993330.
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"A phylogenetic network is a directed acyclic graph that visualizes an evolutionary history containing socalled reticulations such as recombinations, hybridizations or lateral gene transfers. Here we consider the construction of a simplest possible phylogenetic network consistent with an input set T, where T contains at least one phylogenetic tree on three leaves (a triplet) for each combination of three taxa. To quantify the complexity of a network we consider both the total number of reticulations and the number of reticulations per biconnected component, called the level of the network. We give polynomialtime algorithms for constructing a level1 respectively a level2 network that contains a minimum number of reticulations and is consistent with T (if such a network exists). In addition, we show that if T is precisely equal to the set of triplets consistent with some network, then we can construct such a network with smallest possible level in time O(T k+1), if k is a fixed upper bound on the level of the network. © 2009 The Author(s)."



JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Celine Scornavacca,
Konstantin Yu Gorbunov,
Gergely J. Szöllösi,
Vincent Ranwez and
Vincent Berry. An efficient algorithm for gene/species trees parsimonious reconciliation with losses, duplications, and transfers. In Proceedings of the Eighth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'10), Vol. 6398:93108 of LNCS, springer, 2011. Keywords: branch length, duplication, dynamic programming, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, from species tree, from unrooted trees, lateral gene transfer, loss, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Mowgli, reconstruction. Note: http://www.lirmm.fr/~vberry/Publis/MPRDoyonEtAl.pdf, software available at http://www.atgcmontpellier.fr/MPR/.
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"Tree reconciliation methods aim at estimating the evolutionary events that cause discrepancy between gene trees and species trees. We provide a discrete computational model that considers duplications, transfers and losses of genes. The model yields a fast and exact algorithm to infer time consistent and most parsimonious reconciliations. Then we study the conditions under which parsimony is able to accurately infer such events. Overall, it performs well even under realistic rates, transfers being in general less accurately recovered than duplications. An implementation is freely available at http://www.atgc montpellier.fr/MPR. © 2010 SpringerVerlag."





Klaus Schliep. Phangorn: Phylogenetic analysis in R. In Bioinformatics, Vol. 27(4):592593, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, phylogenetic network, Program Phangorn, software, split, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq706.
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"Summary: phangorn is a package for phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis in the R language. Previously it was only possible to estimate phylogenetic trees with distance methods in R. phangorn, now offers the possibility of reconstructing phylogenies with distance based methods, maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood (ML) and performing Hadamard conjugation. Extending the general ML framework, this package provides the possibility of estimating mixture and partition models. Furthermore, phangorn offers several functions for comparing trees, phylogenetic models or splits, simulating character data and performing congruence analyses. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press."





JeanPhilippe Doyon,
Vincent Ranwez,
Vincent Daubin and
Vincent Berry. Models, algorithms and programs for phylogeny reconciliation. In Briefings in Bioinformatics, Vol. 12(5):392400, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, reconstruction, survey.
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"Gene sequences contain a goldmine of phylogenetic information. But unfortunately for taxonomists this information does not only tell the story of the species from which it was collected. Genes have their own complex histories which record speciation events, of course, but also many other events. Among them, gene duplications, transfers and losses are especially important to identify. These events are crucial to account for when reconstructing the history of species, and they play a fundamental role in the evolution of genomes, the diversification of organisms and the emergence of new cellular functions.We review reconciliations between gene and species trees, which are rigorous approaches for identifying duplications, transfers and losses that mark the evolution of a gene family. Existing reconciliation models and algorithms are reviewed and difficulties in modeling gene transfers are discussed. We also compare different reconciliation programs along with their advantages and disadvantages. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press."



Alix Boc and
Vladimir Makarenkov. Towards an accurate identification of mosaic genes and partial horizontal gene transfers. In NAR, Vol. 39(21):e144, 2011. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program T REX, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr735.
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"Many bacteria and viruses adapt to varying environmental conditions through the acquisition of mosaic genes. A mosaic gene is composed of alternating sequence polymorphisms either belonging to the host original allele or derived from the integrated donor DNA. Often, the integrated sequence contains a selectable genetic marker (e.g. marker allowing for antibiotic resistance). An effective identification of mosaic genes and detection of corresponding partial horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) are among the most important challenges posed by evolutionary biology. We developed a method for detecting partial HGT events and related intragenic recombination giving rise to the formation of mosaic genes. A bootstrap procedure incorporated in our method is used to assess the support of each predicted partial gene transfer. The proposed method can be also applied to confirm or discard complete (i.e. traditional) horizontal gene transfers detected by any HGT inferring method. While working on a fullgenome scale, the new method can be used to assess the level of mosaicism in the considered genomes as well as the rates of complete and partial HGT underlying their evolution. © 2011 The Author(s)."



Changiz Eslahchi and
Reza Hassanzadeh. New Algorithm for Constructing Supernetworks from Partial Trees. In MCCMB11, Pages 106107, 2011. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SNSA, reconstruction, simulated annealing, split network. Note: http://mccmb.belozersky.msu.ru/2011/mccmb11.pdf#page=106.



Louxin Zhang,
Yen Kaow Ng,
Taoyang Wu and
Yu Zheng. Network model and efficient method for detecting relative duplications or horizontal gene transfers. In ICCABS11, Pages 214219, 2011. Keywords: dynamic programming, explicit network, from network, from rooted trees, from species tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction.
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"Background: Horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication are two significant forces behind genome evolution. As more and more wellsupported examples of HGTs are being revealed, there is a growing awareness that HGT is more widespread than previously thought, occurring often not only within bacteria, but also between species remotely related such as bacteria and plants or plants and animals. Although a substantial number of genomic sequences are known, HGT inference remains challenging. Parsimonybased inferences of HGT events are typically NPhard under the framework of gene tree and species tree comparison; it is even more timeconsuming if the maximum likelihood approach is used. The fact that gene tree and species tree incongruence can be further confounded by gene duplication and gene loss events motivates us to incorporate considerations for these events into our inference of HGT events. Similarly, it will be beneficial if known HGT events are considered in the inference of gene duplications and gene losses. © 2011 IEEE."



Philippe Gambette. Méthodes combinatoires de reconstruction de réseaux phylogénétiques. PhD thesis, Université Montpellier 2, France, 2010. Keywords: abstract network, characterization, circular split system, explicit network, FPT, from clusters, from triplets, integer linear programming, level k phylogenetic network, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, pyramid, reconstruction, split network, weak hierarchy. Note: http://tel.archivesouvertes.fr/tel00608342/en/.



Changiz Eslahchi,
Mahnaz Habibi,
Reza Hassanzadeh and
Ehsan Mottaghi. MCNet: a method for the construction of phylogenetic networks based on the MonteCarlo method. In BMCEB, Vol. 10:254, 2010. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from distances, heuristic, phylogenetic network, Program MCNet, Program SplitsTree, software, split, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471214810254.
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"Background. A phylogenetic network is a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allows the representation of conflicting signals or alternative evolutionary histories in a single diagram. There are several methods for constructing these networks. Some of these methods are based on distances among taxa. In practice, the methods which are based on distance perform faster in comparison with other methods. The NeighborNet (NNet) is a distancebased method. The NNet produces a circular ordering from a distance matrix, then constructs a collection of weighted splits using circular ordering. The SplitsTree which is a program using these weighted splits makes a phylogenetic network. In general, finding an optimal circular ordering is an NPhard problem. The NNet is a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal circular ordering which is based on neighborjoining algorithm. Results. In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm to find an optimal circular ordering based on the MonteCarlo method, called MCNet algorithm. In order to show that MCNet performs better than NNet, we apply both algorithms on different data sets. Then we draw phylogenetic networks corresponding to outputs of these algorithms using SplitsTree and compare the results. Conclusions. We find that the circular ordering produced by the MCNet is closer to optimal circular ordering than the NNet. Furthermore, the networks corresponding to outputs of MCNet made by SplitsTree are simpler than NNet. © 2010 Eslahchi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Frederick A. Matsen. ConstNJ: an algorithm to reconstruct sets of phylogenetic trees satisfying pairwise topological constraints. In JCB, Vol. 17(6):799818, 2010. Keywords: from distances, Program constNJ, reconstruction. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.1598v2.
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"This article introduces constNJ (constrained neighborjoining), an algorithm for phylogenetic reconstruction of sets of trees with constrained pairwise rooted subtreepruneregraft (rSPR) distance. We are motivated by the problem of constructing sets of trees that must fit into a recombination, hybridization, or similar network. Rather than first finding a set of trees that are optimal according to a phylogenetic criterion (e.g., likelihood or parsimony) and then attempting to fit them into a network, constNJ estimates the trees while enforcing specified rSPR distance constraints. The primary input for constNJ is a collection of distance matrices derived from sequence blocks which are assumed to have evolved in a treelike manner, such as blocks of an alignment which do not contain any recombination breakpoints. The other input is a set of rSPR constraint inequalities for any set of pairs of trees. constNJ is consistent and a strict generalization of the neighborjoining algorithm; it uses the new notion of maximum agreement partitions (MAPs) to assure that the resulting trees satisfy the given rSPR distance constraints. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc."



David A. Morrison. Using datadisplay networks for exploratory data analysis in phylogenetic studies. In MBE, Vol. 27(5):10441057, 2010. Keywords: abstract network, hybridization, NeighborNet, Program SplitsTree, recombination, split decomposition. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msp309.
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"Exploratory data analysis (EDA) is a frequently undervalued part of data analysis in biology. It involves evaluating the characteristics of the data "before" proceeding to the definitive analysis in relation to the scientific question at hand. For phylogenetic analyses, a useful tool for EDA is a datadisplay network. This type of network is designed to display any character (or tree) conflict in a data set, without prior assumptions about the causes of those conflicts. The conflicts might be caused by 1) methodological issues in data collection or analysis, 2) homoplasy, or 3) horizontal gene flow of some sort. Here, I explore 13 published data sets using splits networks, as examples of using datadisplay networks for EDA. In each case, I performed an original EDA on the data provided, to highlight the aspects of the resulting network that will be important for an interpretation of the phylogeny. In each case, there is at least one important point (possibly missed by the original authors) that might affect the phylogenetic analysis. I conclude that EDA should play a greater role in phylogenetic analyses than it has done. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Yufeng Wu. Close Lower and Upper Bounds for the Minimum Reticulate Network of Multiple Phylogenetic Trees. In ISMB10, Vol. 26(12):i140i148 of BIO, 2010. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PIRN, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq198.
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"Motivation: Reticulate network is a model for displaying and quantifying the effects of complex reticulate processes on the evolutionary history of species undergoing reticulate evolution. A central computational problem on reticulate networks is: given a set of phylogenetic trees (each for some region of the genomes), reconstruct the most parsimonious reticulate network (called the minimum reticulate network) that combines the topological information contained in the given trees. This problem is wellknown to be NPhard. Thus, existing approaches for this problem either work with only two input trees or make simplifying topological assumptions. Results: We present novel results on the minimum reticulate network problem. Unlike existing approaches, we address the fully general problem: there is no restriction on the number of trees that are input, and there is no restriction on the form of the allowed reticulate network. We present lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of reticulation events in the minimum reticulate network (and infer an approximately parsimonious reticulate network). A program called PIRN implements these methods, which also outputs a graphical representation of the inferred network. Empirical results on simulated and biological data show that our methods are practical for a wide range of data. More importantly, the lower and upper bounds match for many datasets (especially when the number of trees is small or reticulation level is low), and this allows us to solve the minimum reticulate network problem exactly for these datasets. Availability: A software tool, PIRN, is available for download from the web page: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/ywu. Contact: ywu@engr.uconn.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press."



Yufeng Wu and
Jiayin Wang. Fast Computation of the Exact Hybridization Number of Two Phylogenetic Trees. In ISBRA10, Vol. 6053:203214 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, hybridization, integer linear programming, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridNumber, Program SPRDist, SPR distance. Note: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ywu/Papers/ISBRA10WuWang.pdf.
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"Hybridization is a reticulate evolutionary process. An established problem on hybridization is computing the minimum number of hybridization events, called the hybridization number, needed in the evolutionary history of two phylogenetic trees. This problem is known to be NPhard. In this paper, we present a new practical method to compute the exact hybridization number. Our approach is based on an integer linear programming formulation. Simulation results on biological and simulated datasets show that our method (as implemented in program SPRDist) is more efficient and robust than an existing method. © 2010 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."



Robert G. Beiko. Gene sharing and genome evolution: networks in trees and trees in networks. In Biology and Philosophy, Vol. 25(4):659673, 2010. Keywords: abstract network, explicit network, from rooted trees, galled network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network, survey. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s1053901092173.
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"Frequent lateral genetic transfer undermines the existence of a unique "tree of life" that relates all organisms. Vertical inheritance is nonetheless of vital interest in the study of microbial evolution, and knowing the "tree of cells" can yield insights into ecological continuity, the rates of change of different cellular characters, and the evolutionary plasticity of genomes. Notwithstanding withinspecies recombination, the relationships most frequently recovered from genomic data at shallow to moderate taxonomic depths are likely to reflect cellular inheritance. At the same time, it is clear that several types of 'average signals' from whole genomes can be highly misleading, and the existence of a central tendency must not be taken as prima facie evidence of vertical descent. Phylogenetic networks offer an attractive solution, since they can be formulated in ways that mitigate the misleading aspects of hybrid evolutionary signals in genomes. But the connections in a network typically show genetic relatedness without distinguishing between vertical and lateral inheritance of genetic material. The solution may lie in a compromise between strict treethinking and network paradigms: build a phylogenetic network, but identify the set of connections in the network that are potentially due to vertical descent. Even if a single tree cannot be unambiguously identified, choosing a subnetwork of putative vertical connections can still lead to drastic reductions in the set of candidate vertical hypotheses. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V."



Miguel Arenas,
Mateus Patricio,
David Posada and
Gabriel Valiente. Characterization of Phylogenetic Networks with NetTest. In BMCB, Vol. 11:268, 2010. Keywords: explicit network, galled tree, phylogenetic network, Program NetTest, software, time consistent network, tree sibling network, treechild network, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471210511268, software available at http://darwin.uvigo.es/software/nettest/.
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"Background: Typical evolutionary events like recombination, hybridization or gene transfer make necessary the use of phylogenetic networks to properly depict the evolution of DNA and protein sequences. Although several theoretical classes have been proposed to characterize these networks, they make stringent assumptions that will likely not be met by the evolutionary process. We have recently shown that the complexity of simulated networks is a function of the population recombination rate, and that at moderate and large recombination rates the resulting networks cannot be categorized. However, we do not know whether these results extend to networks estimated from real data.Results: We introduce a web server for the categorization of explicit phylogenetic networks, including the most relevant theoretical classes developed so far. Using this tool, we analyzed statistical parsimony phylogenetic networks estimated from ~5,000 DNA alignments, obtained from the NCBI PopSet and Polymorphix databases. The level of characterization was correlated to nucleotide diversity, and a high proportion of the networks derived from these data sets could be formally characterized.Conclusions: We have developed a public web server, NetTest (freely available from the software section at http://darwin.uvigo.es), to formally characterize the complexity of phylogenetic networks. Using NetTest we found that most statistical parsimony networks estimated with the program TCS could be assigned to a known network class. The level of network characterization was correlated to nucleotide diversity and dependent upon the intra/interspecific levels, although no significant differences were detected among genes. More research on the properties of phylogenetic networks is clearly needed. © 2010 Arenas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Hyun Jung Park,
Guohua Jin and
Luay Nakhleh. Bootstrapbased Support of HGT Inferred by Maximum Parsimony. In BMCEB, Vol. 10:131, 2010. Keywords: bootstrap, explicit network, from sequences, lateral gene transfer, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Nepal, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471214810131.
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"Background. Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and coworkers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. Results. In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrapbased measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. Conclusions. We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/), and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution. © 2010 Park et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Sophie Abby,
Eric Tannier,
Manolo Gouy and
Vincent Daubin. Detecting lateral gene transfers by statistical reconciliation of phylogenetic forests. In BMCB, Vol. 11:324, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, heuristic, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program EEEP, Program PhyloNet, Program Prunier, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712105/11/324.
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"Background: To understand the evolutionary role of Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT), accurate methods are needed to identify transferred genes and infer their timing of acquisition. Phylogenetic methods are particularly promising for this purpose, but the reconciliation of a gene tree with a reference (species) tree is computationally hard. In addition, the application of these methods to real data raises the problem of sorting out real and artifactual phylogenetic conflict.Results: We present Prunier, a new method for phylogenetic detection of LGT based on the search for a maximum statistical agreement forest (MSAF) between a gene tree and a reference tree. The program is flexible as it can use any definition of "agreement" among trees. We evaluate the performance of Prunier and two other programs (EEEP and RIATAHGT) for their ability to detect transferred genes in realistic simulations where gene trees are reconstructed from sequences. Prunier proposes a single scenario that compares to the other methods in terms of sensitivity, but shows higher specificity. We show that LGT scenarios carry a strong signal about the position of the root of the species tree and could be used to identify the direction of evolutionary time on the species tree. We use Prunier on a biological dataset of 23 universal proteins and discuss their suitability for inferring the tree of life.Conclusions: The ability of Prunier to take into account branch support in the process of reconciliation allows a gain in complexity, in comparison to EEEP, and in accuracy in comparison to RIATAHGT. Prunier's greedy algorithm proposes a single scenario of LGT for a gene family, but its quality always compares to the best solutions provided by the other algorithms. When the root position is uncertain in the species tree, Prunier is able to infer a scenario per root at a limited additional computational cost and can easily run on large datasets.Prunier is implemented in C++, using the Bio++ library and the phylogeny program Treefinder. It is available at: http://pbil.univlyon1.fr/software/prunier. © 2010 Abby et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Chris Whidden,
Robert G. Beiko and
Norbert Zeh. Fast FPT Algorithms for Computing Rooted Agreement Forests: Theory and Experiments. In Proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA'10), Vol. 6049:141153 of LNCS, springer, 2010. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, SPR distance. Note: https://www.cs.dal.ca/sites/default/files/technical_reports/CS201003.pdf.
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"We improve on earlier FPT algorithms for computing a rooted maximum agreement forest (MAF) or a maximum acyclic agreement forest (MAAF) of a pair of phylogenetic trees. Their sizes give the subtreepruneandregraft (SPR) distance and the hybridization number of the trees, respectively. We introduce new branching rules that reduce the running time of the algorithms from O(3 kn) and O(3 kn log n) to O(2.42 kn) and O(2.42 kn log n), respectively. In practice, the speed up may be much more than predicted by the worstcase analysis.We confirm this intuition experimentally by computing MAFs for simulated trees and trees inferred from protein sequence data. We show that our algorithm is orders of magnitude faster and can handle much larger trees and SPR distances than the best previous methods, treeSAT and sprdist. © SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010."



Gabriel Cardona,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Comparison of treechild phylogenetic networks. In TCBB, Vol. 6(4):552569, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Bio PhyloNetwork, Program PhyloNetwork, tree sibling network, treechild network. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.3499.
Toggle abstract
"Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of nontreelike evolutionary events, like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. While much progress has been made to find practical algorithms for reconstructing a phylogenetic network from a set of sequences, all attempts to endorse a class of phylogenetic networks (strictly extending the class of phylogenetic trees) with a wellfounded distance measure have, to the best of our knowledge and with the only exception of the bipartition distance on regular networks, failed so far. In this paper, we present and study a new meaningful class of phylogenetic networks, called treechild phylogenetic networks, and we provide an injective representation of these networks as multisets of vectors of natural numbers, their path multiplicity vectors. We then use this representation to define a distance on this class that extends the wellknown RobinsonFoulds distance for phylogenetic trees and to give an alignment method for pairs of networks in this class. Simple polynomial algorithms for reconstructing a treechild phylogenetic network from its path multiplicity vectors, for computing the distance between two treechild phylogenetic networks and for aligning a pair of treechild phylogenetic networks, are provided. They have been implemented as a Perl package and a Java applet, which can be found at http://bioinfo.uib.es/~recerca/ phylonetworks/mudistance/. © 2009 IEEE."



Stefan Grünewald,
Vincent Moulton and
Andreas Spillner. Consistency of the QNet algorithm for generating planar split networks from weighted quartets. In DAM, Vol. 157(10):23252334, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, consistency, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dam.2008.06.038.
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"Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that allow the representation of conflicting signals or alternative evolutionary histories in a single diagram. Recently the QuartetNet or "QNet" method was introduced, a method for computing a special kind of phylogenetic network called a split network from a collection of weighted quartet trees (i.e. phylogenetic trees with 4 leaves). This can be viewed as a quartet analogue of the distancebased NeighborNet (NNet) method for constructing outerlabeled planar split networks. In this paper, we prove that QNet is a consistent method, that is, we prove that if QNet is applied to a collection of weighted quartets arising from a circular split weight function, then it will return precisely this function. This key property of QNet not only ensures that it is guaranteed to produce a tree if the input corresponds to a tree, and an outerlabeled planar split network if the input corresponds to such a network, but also provides the main guiding principle for the design of the method. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Daniel H. Huson. Drawing Rooted Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 6(1):103109, 2009. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Dendroscope, Program SplitsTree, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2008.58.
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"The evolutionary history of a collection of species is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree. Sometimes, phylogenetic networks are used as a means of representing reticulate evolution or of showing uncertainty and incompatibilities in evolutionary datasets. This is often done using unrooted phylogenetic networks such as split networks, due in part, to the availability of software (SplitsTree) for their computation and visualization. In this paper we discuss the problem of drawing rooted phylogenetic networks as cladograms or phylograms in a number of different views that are commonly used for rooted trees. Implementations of the algorithms are available in new releases of the Dendroscope and SplitsTree programs. © 2006 IEEE."



Leo van Iersel. Algorithms, Haplotypes and Phylogenetic Networks. PhD thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2009. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, exponential algorithm, FPT, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, mu distance, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Level2, Program Marlon, Program Simplistic, Program T REX, reconstruction. Note: http://www.win.tue.nl/~liersel/thesis_vaniersel_viewing.pdf.



Philippe Gambette,
Vincent Berry and
Christophe Paul. The structure of levelk phylogenetic networks. In CPM09, Vol. 5577:289300 of LNCS, springer, 2009. Keywords: coalescent, explicit network, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, Program Recodon. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00371485/en/.
Toggle abstract
"Evolution is usually described as a phylogenetic tree, but due to some exchange of genetic material, it can be represented as a phylogenetic network which has an underlying tree structure. The notion of level was recently introduced as a parameter on realistic kinds of phylogenetic networks to express their complexity and treelikeness. We study the structure of levelk networks, and how they can be decomposed into levelk generators. We also provide a polynomial time algorithm which takes as input the set of levelk generators and builds the set of level(k + 1) generators. Finally, with a simulation study, we evaluate the proportion of levelk phylogenetic networks among networks generated according to the coalescent model with recombination. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg."



Daniel H. Huson,
Regula Rupp,
Vincent Berry,
Philippe Gambette and
Christophe Paul. Computing Galled Networks from Real Data. In ISMBECCB09, Vol. 25(12):i85i93 of BIO, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, cluster containment, explicit network, FPT, from clusters, from rooted trees, galled network, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Dendroscope, reconstruction. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00368545/en/.
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"Motivation: Developing methods for computing phylogenetic networks from biological data is an important problem posed by molecular evolution and much work is currently being undertaken in this area. Although promising approaches exist, there are no tools available that biologists could easily and routinely use to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing tens or hundreds of taxa. Biologists are interested in clades, i.e. groups of monophyletic taxa, and these are usually represented by clusters in a rooted phylogenetic tree. The problem of computing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from a set of clusters, is hard, in general. Indeed, even the problem of just determining whether a given network contains a given cluster is hard. Hence, some researchers have focused on topologically restricted classes of networks, such as galled trees and levelk networks, that are more tractable, but have the practical drawback that a given set of clusters will usually not possess such a representation. Results: In this article, we argue that galled networks (a generalization of galled trees) provide a good tradeoff between level of generality and tractability. Any set of clusters can be represented by some galled network and the question whether a cluster is contained in such a network is easy to solve. Although the computation of an optimal galled network involves successively solving instances of two different NPcomplete problems, in practice our algorithm solves this problem exactly on large datasets containing hundreds of taxa and many reticulations in seconds, as illustrated by a dataset containing 279 prokaryotes. © 2009 The Author(s)."



Martin Lott,
Andreas Spillner,
Katharina Huber and
Vincent Moulton. PADRE: A Package for Analyzing and Displaying Reticulate Evolution. In BIO, Vol. 25(9):11991200, 2009. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PADRE, reconstruction, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btp133.
Toggle abstract
"Recent advances in gene sequencing for polyploid species, coupled with standard phylogenetic tree reconstruction, leads to gene trees in which the same species can label several leaves. Such multilabeled trees are then used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the polyploid species in question. However, this reconstruction process requires new techniques that are not available in current phylogenetic software packages. Here, we describe the software package PADRE (Package for Analyzing and Displaying Reticulate Evolution) that implements such techniques, allowing the reconstruction of complex evolutionary histories for polyploids in the form of phylogenetic networks. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Martin Lott. New Methods for Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from MultiLabelled Trees. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, U.K., 2009. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PADRE, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.ic0.net/thesismartinfinal.pdf.





Josh Voorkamp né Collins. Rekernelisation Algorithms in Hybrid Phylogenies. Master's thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2009. Keywords: agreement forest, explicit network, FPT, from rooted trees, from unrooted trees, hybridization, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HybridInterleave, reconstruction, software. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10092/2852.



Martin Lott,
Andreas Spillner,
Katharina Huber,
Anna Petri,
Bengt Oxelman and
Vincent Moulton. Inferring polyploid phylogenies from multiplylabeled gene trees. In BMCEB, Vol. 9:216, 2009. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PADRE, reconstruction. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/147121489216.
Toggle abstract
"Background : Gene trees that arise in the context of reconstructing the evolutionary history of polyploid species are often multiplylabeled, that is, the same leaf label can occur several times in a single tree. This property considerably complicates the task of forming a consensus of a collection of such trees compared to usual phylogenetic trees. Results. We present a method for computing a consensus tree of multiplylabeled trees. As with the wellknown greedy consensus tree approach for phylogenetic trees, our method first breaks the given collection of gene trees into a set of clusters. It then aims to insert these clusters one at a time into a tree, starting with the clusters that are supported by most of the gene trees. As the problem to decide whether a cluster can be inserted into a multiplylabeled tree is computationally hard, we have developed a heuristic method for solving this problem. Conclusion. We illustrate the applicability of our method using two collections of trees for plants of the genus Silene, that involve several allopolyploids at different levels. © 2009 Lott et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Bui Quang Minh,
Fabio Pardi,
Steffen Klaere and
Arndt von Haeseler. Budgeted Phylogenetic Diversity on Circular Split Systems. In TCBB, Vol. 6(1):2229, 2009. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, dynamic programming, from network, phylogenetic network, polynomial, split, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2008.54.
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"In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree. © 2006 IEEE."









Philippe Gambette and
Daniel H. Huson. Improved Layout of Phylogenetic Networks. In TCBB, Vol. 5(3):472479, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, heuristic, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://hallirmm.ccsd.cnrs.fr/lirmm00309694/en/.
Toggle abstract
"Split networks are increasingly being used in phylogenetic analysis. Usually, a simple equalangle algorithm is used to draw such networks, producing layouts that leave much room for improvement. Addressing the problem of producing better layouts of split networks, this paper presents an algorithm for maximizing the area covered by the network, describes an extension of the equaldaylight algorithm to networks, looks into using a spring embedder, and discusses how to construct rooted split networks. © 2008 IEEE."



Stefan Grünewald,
Katharina Huber and
Qiong Wu. Two novel closure rules for constructing phylogenetic supernetworks. In BMB, Vol. 70(7):19061924, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from splits, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program MY CLOSURE, reconstruction, supernetwork. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.0283, slides available at http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/webseminars/pg+ws/2007/plg/plgw01/0904/huber/.
Toggle abstract
"A contemporary and fundamental problem faced by many evolutionary biologists is how to puzzle together a collection P of partial trees (leaflabeled trees whose leaves are bijectively labeled by species or, more generally, taxa, each supported by, e.g., a gene) into an overall parental structure that displays all trees in P. This already difficult problem is complicated by the fact that the trees in P regularly support conflicting phylogenetic relationships and are not on the same but only overlapping taxa sets. A desirable requirement on the sought after parental structure, therefore, is that it can accommodate the observed conflicts. Phylogenetic networks are a popular tool capable of doing precisely this. However, not much is known about how to construct such networks from partial trees, a notable exception being the Zclosure supernetwork approach, which is based on the Zclosure rule, and the Qimputation approach. Although attractive approaches, they both suffer from the fact that the generated networks tend to be multidimensional making it necessary to apply some kind of filter to reduce their complexity. To avoid having to resort to a filter, we follow a different line of attack in this paper and develop closure rules for generating circular phylogenetic networks which have the attractive property that they can be represented in the plane. In particular, we introduce the novel Y(closure) rule and show that this rule on its own or in combination with one of Meacham's closure rules (which we call the Mrule) has some very desirable theoretical properties. In addition, we present a case study based on Rivera et al. "ring of life" to explore the reconstructive power of the M and Yrule and also reanalyze an Arabidopsis thaliana data set. © 2008 Society for Mathematical Biology."



Leo van Iersel,
Judith Keijsper,
Steven Kelk,
Leen Stougie,
Ferry Hagen and
Teun Boekhout. Constructing level2 phylogenetic networks from triplets. In RECOMB08, Vol. 4955:450462 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, level k phylogenetic network, NP complete, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Level2, reconstruction. Note: http://homepages.cwi.nl/~iersel/level2full.pdf. An appendix with proofs can be found here http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.2890.
Toggle abstract
"Jansson and Sung showed that, given a dense set of input triplets T (representing hypotheses about the local evolutionary relationships of triplets of taxa), it is possible to determine in polynomial time whether there exists a level1 network consistent with T, and if so, to construct such a network [24]. Here, we extend this work by showing that this problem is even polynomial time solvable for the construction of level2 networks. This shows that, assuming density, it is tractable to construct plausible evolutionary histories from input triplets even when such histories are heavily nontreelike. This further strengthens the case for the use of tripletbased methods in the construction of phylogenetic networks. We also implemented the algorithm and applied it to yeast data. © 2009 IEEE."



Tobias Kloepper and
Daniel H. Huson. Drawing explicit phylogenetic networks and their integration into SplitsTree. In BMCEB, Vol. 8(22), 2008. Keywords: explicit network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/14712148822.
Toggle abstract
"Background. SplitsTree provides a framework for the calculation of phylogenetic trees and networks. It contains a wide variety of methods for the import/export, calculation and visualization of phylogenetic information. The software is developed in Java and implements a command line tool as well as a graphical user interface. Results. In this article, we present solutions to two important problems in the field of phylogenetic networks. The first problem is the visualization of explicit phylogenetic networks. To solve this, we present a modified version of the equal angle algorithm that naturally integrates reticulations into the layout process and thus leads to an appealing visualization of these networks. The second problem is the availability of explicit phylogenetic network methods for the general user. To advance the usage of explicit phylogenetic networks by biologists further, we present an extension to the SplitsTree framework that integrates these networks. By addressing these two problems, SplitsTree is among the first programs that incorporates implicit and explicit network methods together with standard phylogenetic tree methods in a graphical user interface environment. Conclusion. In this article, we presented an extension of SplitsTree 4 that incorporates explicit phylogenetic networks. The extension provides a set of core classes to handle explicit phylogenetic networks and a visualization of these networks. © 2008 Kloepper and Huson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Steven M. Woolley,
David Posada and
Keith A. Crandall. A Comparison of Phylogenetic Network Methods Using Computer Simulation. In PLoS ONE, Vol. 3(4):e1913, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, distance between networks, evaluation, median network, MedianJoining, minimum spanning network, NeighborNet, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Arlequin, Program CombineTrees, Program Network, Program SHRUB, Program SplitsTree, Program TCS, split decomposition. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001913.
Toggle abstract
"Background: We present a series of simulation studies that explore the relative performance of several phylogenetic network approaches (statistical parsimony, split decomposition, union of maximum parsimony trees, neighbornet, simulated history recombination upper bound, medianjoining, reduced median joining and minimum spanning network) compared to standard tree approaches (neighborjoining and maximum parsimony) in the presence and absence of recombination. Principal Findings: In the absence of recombination, all methods recovered the correct topology and branch lengths nearly all of the time when the subtitution rate was low, except for minimum spanning networks, which did considerably worse. At a higher substitution rate, maximum parsimony and union of maximum parsimony trees were the most accurate. With recombination, the ability to infer the correct topology was halved for all methods and no method could accurately estimate branch lengths. Conclusions: Our results highlight the need for more accurate phylogenetic network methods and the importance of detecting and accounting for recombination in phylogenetic studies. Furthermore, we provide useful information for choosing a network algorithm and a framework in which to evaluate improvements to existing methods and novel algorithms developed in the future. © 2008 Woolley et al."



James B. Whitfield,
Sydney A. Cameron,
Daniel H. Huson and
Mike Steel. Filtered ZClosure Supernetworks for Extracting and Visualizing Recurrent Signal from Incongruent Gene Trees. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 57(6):939947, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, split, split network, supernetwork. Note: http://www.life.uiuc.edu/scameron/pdfs/Filtered%20Zclosure%20SystBiol.pdf.



Leo van Iersel and
Steven Kelk. Constructing the Simplest Possible Phylogenetic Network from Triplets. In ISAAC08, Vol. 5369:472483 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, minimum number, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Marlon, Program Simplistic. Note: http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1859.



Daniel H. Huson and
Regula Rupp. Summarizing Multiple Gene Trees Using Cluster Networks. In WABI08, Vol. 5251:296305 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from clusters, from rooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program Dendroscope. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783540873617_25, slides from the MIEP Conference available at http://www.lirmm.fr/MIEP08/slides/11_13_rupp.pdf.
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"The result of a multiple gene tree analysis is usually a number of different tree topologies that are each supported by a significant proportion of the genes. We introduce the concept of a cluster network that can be used to combine such trees into a single rooted network, which can be drawn either as a cladogram or phylogram. In contrast to split networks, which can grow exponentially in the size of the input, cluster networks grow only quadratically. A cluster network is easily computed using a modification of the treepopping algorithm, which we call networkpopping. The approach has been implemented as part of the Dendroscope treedrawing program and its application is illustrated using data and results from three recent studies on large numbers of gene trees. © 2008 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."



Stefan Grünewald,
Andreas Spillner,
Kristoffer Forslund and
Vincent Moulton. Constructing Phylogenetic Supernetworks from Quartets. In WABI08, Vol. 5251:284295 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783540873617_24.
Toggle abstract
"In phylogenetics it is common practice to summarize collections of partial phylogenetic trees in the form of supertrees. Recently it has been proposed to construct phylogenetic supernetworks as an alternative to supertrees as these allow the representation of conflicting information in the trees, information that may not be representable in a single tree. Here we introduce SuperQ, a new method for constructing such supernetworks. It works by breaking the input trees into quartet trees, and stitching together the resulting set to form a network. The stitching process is performed using an adaptation of the QNet method for phylogenetic network reconstruction. In addition to presenting the new method, we illustrate the applicability of SuperQ to three data sets and discuss future directions for testing and development. © 2008 SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg."



Miguel Arenas,
Gabriel Valiente and
David Posada. Characterization of reticulate networks based on the coalescent with recombination. In MBE, Vol. 25(12):25172520, 2008. Keywords: coalescent, evaluation, explicit network, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Recodon, regular network, simulation, tree sibling network, treechild network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn219.
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"Phylogenetic networks aim to represent the evolutionary history of taxa. Within these, reticulate networks are explicitly able to accommodate evolutionary events like recombination, hybridization, or lateral gene transfer. Although several metrics exist to compare phylogenetic networks, they make several assumptions regarding the nature of the networks that are not likely to be fulfilled by the evolutionary process. In order to characterize the potential disagreement between the algorithms and the biology, we have used the coalescent with recombination to build the type of networks produced by reticulate evolution and classified them as regular, tree sibling, tree child, or galled trees. We show that, as expected, the complexity of these reticulate networks is a function of the population recombination rate. At small recombination rates, most of the networks produced are already more complex than regular or tree sibling networks, whereas with moderate and large recombination rates, no network fit into any of the standard classes. We conclude that new metrics still need to be devised in order to properly compare two phylogenetic networks that have arisen from reticulating evolutionary process. © 2008 The Authors."



Gabriel Cardona,
Francesc Rosselló and
Gabriel Valiente. Extended Newick: It is Time for a Standard Representation. In BMCB, Vol. 9:532, 2008. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, phylogenetic network, Program Bio PhyloNetwork, Program Dendroscope, Program NetGen, Program PhyloNet, Program SplitsTree, Program TCS, visualization. Note: http://bioinfo.uib.es/media/uploaded/bmc2008enewicksub.pdf.



Supriya Munshaw and
Thomas B. Kepler. An InformationTheoretic Method for the Treatment of Plural Ancestry in Phylogenetics. In MBE, Vol. 25(6):11991208, 2008. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, phylogenetic network, reconstruction, simulated annealing, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn066.
Toggle abstract
"In the presence of recombination and gene conversion, a given genomic segment may inherit information from 2 distinct immediate ancestors. The importance of this type of molecular inheritance has become increasingly clear over the years, and the potential for erroneous inference when it is not accounted for in the statistical model is well documented. Yet, the inclusion of plural ancestry (PA) in phylogenetic analysis is still not routine. This omission is due to the greater difficulty of phylogenetic inference on general acyclic graphs compared that on with trees and the accompanying computational burden. We have developed a technique for phylogenetic inference in the presence of PA based on the principle of minimum description length, which assigns a cost  the description length  to each network topology given the observed sequence data. The description length combines the cost of poor data fit and model complexity in terms of information. This device allows us to search through network topologies to minimize the total description length. By comparing the best models obtained with and without PA, one can determine whether or not recombination has played an active role in the evolution of the genes under investigation, identify those genes that appear to be mosaic, and infer the phylogenetic network that best represents the history of the alignment. We show that the method performs well on simulated data and demonstrate its application on HIV env gene sequence data from 8 human subjects. The software implementation of the method is available upon request. © The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Cuong Than,
Guohua Jin and
Luay Nakhleh. Integrating Sequence and Topology for Efficient and Accurate Detection of Horizontal Gene Transfer. In Proceedings of the Sixth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'08), Vol. 5267:113127 of LNCS, springer, 2008. Keywords: bootstrap, explicit network, from rooted trees, from sequences, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Nepal, Program PhyloNet, reconstruction. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/recombcg08.pdf, slides available at http://igm.univmlv.fr/RCG08/RCG08slides/Cuong_Than_RCG08.pdf.



Stefan Grünewald,
Kristoffer Forslund,
Andreas W. M. Dress and
Vincent Moulton. QNet: An agglomerative method for the construction of phylogenetic networks from weighted quartets. In MBE, Vol. 24(2):532538, 2007. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program QNet, reconstruction, software. Note: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/24/2/532.
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"We present QNet, a method for constructing split networks from weighted quartet trees. QNet can be viewed as a quartet analogue of the distancebased NeighborNet (NNet) method for network construction. Just as NNet, QNet works by agglomeratively computing a collection of circular weighted splits of the taxa set which is subsequently represented by a planar split network. To illustrate the applicability of QNet, we apply it to a previously published Salmonella data set. We conclude that QNet can provide a useful alternative to NNet if distance data are not available or a characterbased approach is preferred. Moreover, it can be used as an aid for determining when a quartetbased treebuilding method may or may not be appropriate for a given data set. QNet is freely available for download. © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Barbara R. Holland,
Glenn Conner,
Katharina Huber and
Vincent Moulton. Imputing Supertrees and Supernetworks from Quartets. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 56(1):5767, 2007. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Quartet, reconstruction, split network, supernetwork. Note: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.99.3215.
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"Inferring species phylogenies is an important part of understanding molecular evolution. Even so, it is well known that an accurate phylogenetic tree reconstruction for a single gene does not always necessarily correspond to the species phylogeny. One commonly accepted strategy to cope with this problem is to sequence many genes; the way in which to analyze the resulting collection of genes is somewhat more contentious. Supermatrix and supertree methods can be used, although these can suppress conflicts arising from true differences in the gene trees caused by processes such as lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, or gene duplication and loss. In 2004, Huson et al. (IEEE/ACM Trans. Comput. Biol. Bioinformatics 1:151158) presented the Zclosure method that can circumvent this problem by generating a supernetwork as opposed to a supertree. Here we present an alternative way for generating supernetworks called Qimputation. In particular, we describe a method that uses quartet information to add missing taxa into gene trees. The resulting trees are subsequently used to generate consensus networks, networks that generalize strict and majorityrule consensus trees. Through simulations and application to real data sets, we compare Qimputation to the matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) supertree method and Zclosure, and demonstrate that it provides a useful complementary tool. Copyright © Society of Systematic Biologists."



Katharina Huber,
Bengt Oxelman,
Martin Lott and
Vincent Moulton. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Polyploids from Multilabeled Trees. In MBE, Vol. 23(9):17841791, 2007. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, from trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PADRE, reconstruction, software. Note: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/23/9/1784.
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"In recent studies, phylogenetic networks have been derived from socalled multilabeled trees in order to understand the origins of certain polyploids. Although the trees used in these studies were constructed using sophisticated techniques in phylogenetic analysis, the presented networks were inferred using ad hoc arguments that cannot be easily extended to larger, more complicated examples. In this paper, we present a general method for constructing such networks, which takes as input a multilabeled phylogenetic tree and outputs a phylogenetic network with certain desirable properties. To illustrate the applicability of our method, we discuss its use in reconstructing the evolutionary history of plant allopolyploids. We conclude with a discussion concerning possible future directions. The network construction method has been implemented and is freely available for use from http://www.uea.ac.uk/ ∼a043878/padre.html. © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Daniel H. Huson. Split networks and Reticulate Networks. In
Olivier Gascuel and
Mike Steel editors, Reconstructing Evolution, New Mathematical and Computational Advances, Pages 247276, Oxford University Press, 2007. Keywords: abstract network, consensus, from rooted trees, from sequences, from splits, from unrooted trees, galled tree, hybridization, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Beagle, Program Spectronet, Program SplitsTree, Program SPNet, recombination, reconstruction, split network, survey. Note: similar to http://wwwab.informatik.unituebingen.de/research/phylonets/GCB2006.pdf.





Monique M. Morin. Phylogenetic Networks: Simulation, Characterization, and Reconstruction. PhD thesis, The University of New Mexico, U.S.A., 2007. Keywords: evaluation, explicit network, hybridization, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program NetGen, simulation, software. Note: http://www.cs.unm.edu/~morin/morin_phd.pdf.



Dan Gusfield,
Vikas Bansal,
Vineet Bafna and
Yun S. Song. A Decomposition Theory for Phylogenetic Networks and Incompatible Characters. In JCB, Vol. 14(10):12471272, 2007. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, galled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Beagle, Program GalledTree, recombination, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~yss/Pub/decomposition.pdf.



Galina Glazko,
Vladimir Makarenkov,
Jing Liu and
Arcady Mushegian. Evolutionary history of bacteriophages with doublestranded DNA genomes. In Biology Direct, Vol. 2(36), 2007. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program T REX. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/17456150236.
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"Background: Reconstruction of evolutionary history of bacteriophages is a difficult problem because of fast sequence drift and lack of omnipresent genes in phage genomes. Moreover, losses and recombinational exchanges of genes are so pervasive in phages that the plausibility of phylogenetic inference in phage kingdom has been questioned. Results: We compiled the profiles of presence and absence of 803 orthologous genes in 158 completely sequenced phages with doublestranded DNA genomes and used these gene content vectors to infer the evolutionary history of phages. There were 18 wellsupported clades, mostly corresponding to accepted genera, but in some cases appearing to define new taxonomic groups. Conflicts between this phylogeny and trees constructed from sequence alignments of phage proteins were exploited to infer 294 specific acts of intergenome gene transfer. Conclusion: A notoriously reticulate evolutionary history of fastevolving phages can be reconstructed in considerable detail by quantitative comparative genomics. © 2007 Glazko et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Cuong Than,
Derek Ruths,
Hideki Innan and
Luay Nakhleh. Confounding Factors in HGT Detection: Statistical Error, Coalescent Effects, and Multiple Solutions. In JCB, Vol. 14(4):517535, 2007. Keywords: counting, explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LatTrans, Program PhyloNet. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/recombcg06jcb.pdf.



Nicolas Galtier. A model of horizontal gene transfer and the bacterial phylogeny problem. In Systematic Biology, Vol. 56(4):633642, 2007. Keywords: explicit network, generation, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HGT_simul, software, statistical model. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10635150701546231.
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"How much horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between species influences bacterial phylogenomics is a controversial issue. This debate, however, lacks any quantitative assessment of the impact of HGT on phylogenies and of the ability of treebuilding methods to cope with such events. I introduce a Markov model of genome evolution with HGT, accounting for the constraints on timean HGT event can only occur between concomitantly living species. This model is used to simulate multigene sequence data sets with or without HGT. The consequences of HGT on phylogenomic inference are analyzed and compared to other wellknown phylogenetic artefacts. It is found that supertree methods are quite robust to HGT, keeping high levels of performance even when gene trees are largely incongruent with each other. Gene tree incongruence per se is not indicative of HGT. HGT, however, removes the (otherwise observed) positive relationship between sequence length and gene tree congruence to the estimated species tree. Surprisingly, when applied to a bacterial and a eukaryotic multigene data set, this criterion rejects the HGT hypothesis for the former, but not the latter data set. Copyright © Society of Systematic Biologists."



Vincent Moulton and
Katharina Huber. Phylogenetic networks from multilabelled trees. In JOMB, Vol. 52(5):613632, 2006. Keywords: duplication, explicit network, from multilabeled tree, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program PADRE, reconstruction. Note: http://www.uea.ac.uk/~a043878/jmb.pdf.
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"It is now quite well accepted that the evolutionary past of certain species is better represented by phylogenetic networks as opposed to trees. For example, polyploids are typically thought to have resulted through hybridization and duplication, processes that are probably not best represented as bifurcating speciation events. Based on the knowledge of a multilabelled tree relating collection of polyploids, we present a canonical construction of a phylogenetic network that exhibits the tree. In addition, we prove that the resulting network is in some welldefined sense a minimal network having this property. © SpringerVerlag 2006."



Daniel H. Huson and
David Bryant. Application of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies. In MBE, Vol. 23(2):254267, 2006. Keywords: abstract network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, survey. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msj030, software available from www.splitstree.org.
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"The evolutionary history of a set of taxa is usually represented by a phylogenetic tree, and this model has greatly facilitated the discussion and testing of hypotheses. However, it is well known that more complex evolutionary scenarios are poorly described by such models. Further, even when evolution proceeds in a treelike manner, analysis of the data may not be best served by using methods that enforce a tree structure but rather by a richer visualization of the data to evaluate its properties, at least as an essential first step. Thus, phylogenetic networks should be employed when reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, recombination, or gene duplication and loss are believed to be involved, and, even in the absence of such events, phylogenetic networks have a useful role to play. This article reviews the terminology used for phylogenetic networks and covers both split networks and reticulate networks, how they are defined, and how they can be interpreted. Additionally, the article outlines the beginnings of a comprehensive statistical framework for applying split network methods. We show how split networks can represent confidence sets of trees and introduce a conservative statistical test for whether the conflicting signal in a network is treelike. Finally, this article describes a new program, SplitsTree4, an interactive and comprehensive tool for inferring different types of phylogenetic networks from sequences, distances, and trees. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved."



Jesper Jansson and
WingKin Sung. Inferring a level1 phylogenetic network from a dense set of rooted triplets. In TCS, Vol. 363(1):6068, 2006. 1 comment Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/ipnrt8_TCS2006.pdf.
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"We consider the following problem: Given a set T of rooted triplets with leaf set L, determine whether there exists a phylogenetic network consistent with T, and if so, construct one. We show that if no restrictions are placed on the hybrid nodes in the solution, the problem is trivially solved in polynomial time by a simple sorting networkbased construction. For the more interesting (and biologically more motivated) case where the solution is required to be a level1 phylogenetic network, we present an algorithm solving the problem in O ( T 2) time when T is dense, i.e., when T contains at least one rooted triplet for each cardinality three subset of L. We also give an O ( T 5 / 3)time algorithm for finding the set of all phylogenetic networks having a single hybrid node attached to exactly one leaf (and having no other hybrid nodes) that are consistent with a given dense set of rooted triplets. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved."



Guohua Jin,
Luay Nakhleh,
Sagi Snir and
Tamir Tuller. Maximum Likelihood of Phylogenetic Networks. In BIO, Vol. 22(21):26042611, 2006. Keywords: explicit network, likelihood, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Nepal, reconstruction. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/NetworksML06.pdf, supplementary material: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/SuppML.pdf.



Cuong Than,
Derek Ruths,
Hideki Innan and
Luay Nakhleh. Identifiability Issues in PhylogenyBased Detection of Horizontal Gene Transfer. In Proceedings of the Fourth RECOMB Comparative Genomics Satellite Workshop (RECOMBCG'06), Vol. 4205:215229 of LNCS, springer, 2006. 1 comment Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, from species tree, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program LatTrans, Program PhyloNet. Note: http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/recombcg06final.pdf.





Sergey Bereg and
Kathryn Bean. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from Trees. In BIBE05, Pages 299305, 2005. 1 comment Keywords: evaluation, from distances, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, Program T REX, reconstruction, split, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BIBE.2005.19.
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We present a new method of constructing a phylogenetic network from a given phylogenetic tree. It is based on a procedure that locally improves the tree. The procedure is quite general and can be applied to phylogenetic networks. By repeating local improvements user can introduce a given number of recombination cycles. A sequence of networks with decreasing distance deviation can be generated. The algorithm is efficient and shows a good performance on an example with plants. This is due to the fact that the update in every step is local and optimal. © 2005 IEEE.



Yun S. Song,
Yufeng Wu and
Dan Gusfield. Efficient computation of close lower and upper bounds on the minimum number of recombinations in biological sequence evolution. In ISMB05, Vol. 21:i413i422 of BIO, 2005. Keywords: integer linear programming, minimum number, Program HapBound, Program SHRUB, recombination. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti1033.
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"Motivation: We are interested in studying the evolution of DNA single nucleotide polymorphism sequences which have undergone (meiotic) recombination. For a given set of sequences, computing the minimum number of recombinations needed to explain the sequences (with one mutation per site) is a standard question of interest, but it has been shown to be NPhard, and previous algorithms that compute it exactly work either only on very small datasets or on problems with special structure. Results: In this paper, we present efficient, practical methods for computing both upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of needed recombinations, and for constructing evolutionary histories that explain the input sequences. We study in detail the efficiency and accuracy of these algorithms on both simulated and real data sets. The algorithms produce very close upper and lower bounds, which match exactly in a surprisingly wide range of data. Thus, with the use of new, very effective lower bounding methods and an efficient algorithm for computing upper bounds, this approach allows the efficient, exact computation of the minimum number of needed recombinations, with high frequency in a large range of data. When upper and lower bounds match, evolutionary histories found by our algorithm correspond to the most parsimonious histories. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved."



Dave MacLeod,
Robert L. Charlebois,
W. Ford Doolittle and
Eric Bapteste. Deduction of probable events of lateral gene transfer through comparison of phylogenetic trees by recursive consolidation and rearrangement. In BMCEB, Vol. 5(27), 2005. Keywords: explicit network, from rooted trees, lateral gene transfer, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program HorizStory, reconstruction, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/14712148527.
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"Background: When organismal phylogenies based on sequences of single marker genes are poorly resolved, a logical approach is to add more markers, on the assumption that weak but congruent phylogenetic signal will be reinforced in such multigene trees. Such approaches are valid only when the several markers indeed have identical phylogenies, an issue which many multigene methods (such as the use of concatenated gene sequences or the assembly of supertrees) do not directly address. Indeed, even when the true history is a mixture of vertical descent for some genes and lateral gene transfer (LGT) for others, such methods produce unique topologies. Results: We have developed software that aims to extract evidence for vertical and lateral inheritance from a set of gene trees compared against an arbitrary reference tree. This evidence is then displayed as a synthesis showing support over the tree for vertical inheritance, overlaid with explicit lateral gene transfer (LGT) events inferred to have occurred over the history of the tree. Like splitstree methods, one can thus identify nodes at which conflict occurs. Additionally one can make reasonable inferences about vertical and lateral signal, assigning putative donors and recipients. Conclusion: A tool such as ours can serve to explore the reticulated dimensionality of molecular evolution, by dissecting vertical and lateral inheritance at high resolution. By this, we mean that individual nodes can be examined not only for congruence, but also for coherence in light of LGT. We assert that our tools will facilitate the comparison of phylogenetic trees, and the interpretation of conflicting data. © 2005 MacLeod et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd."



Insa Cassens,
Patrick Mardulyn and
Michel C. Milinkovitch. Evaluating Intraspecific Network Construction Methods Using Simulated Sequence Data: Do Existing Algorithms Outperform the Global Maximum Parsimony Approach? In Systematic Biology, Vol. 54(3):363372, 2005. Keywords: abstract network, evaluation, from unrooted trees, haplotype network, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Arlequin, Program CombineTrees, Program Network, Program TCS, reconstruction, software. Note: http://www.lanevol.org/LANE/publications_files/Cassens_etal_SystBio_2005.pdf.



Andreas W. M. Dress and
Daniel H. Huson. Constructing splits graphs. In TCBB, Vol. 1(3):109115, 2004. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network, visualization. Note: http://scilib.kiev.ua/ieee/tcbb/2004/03/n3/n0109.pdf.
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"Phylogenetic trees correspond onetoone to compatible systems of splits and so splits play an important role in theoretical and computational aspects of phylogeny. Whereas any tree reconstruction method can be thought of as producing a compatible system of splits, an increasing number of phylogenetlc algorithms are available that compute split systems that are not necessarily compatible and, thus, cannot always be represented by a tree. Such methods include the split decomposition, NeighborNet, consensus networks, and the Zclosure method. A more general split system of this kind can be represented graphically by a socalled splits graph, which generalizes the concept of a phylogenetic tree. This paper addresses the problem of computing a splits graph for a given set of splits. We have implemented all presented algorithms in a new program called SplitsTree4. © 2004 IEEE."



Daniel H. Huson,
Tobias Dezulian,
Tobias Kloepper and
Mike Steel. Phylogenetic SuperNetworks from Partial Trees. In TCBB, Vol. 1(4):151158, 2004. Keywords: abstract network, from unrooted trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, supernetwork. Note: http://hdl.handle.net/10092/3177.
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"In practice, one is often faced with incomplete phylogenetic data, such as a collection of partial trees or partial splits. This paper poses the problem of Inferring a phylogenetic supernetwork from such data and provides an efficient algorithm for doing so, called the Zclosure method. Additionally, the questions of assigning lengths to the edges of the network and how to restrict the "dimensionality" of the network are addressed. Applications to a set of five published partial gene trees relating different fungal species and to six published partial gene trees relating different grasses illustrate the usefulness of the method and an experimental study confirms Its potential. The method Is implemented as a plugin for the program SplitsTree4. © 2004 IEEE."



Jesper Jansson and
WingKin Sung. Inferring a level1 phylogenetic network from a dense set of rooted triplets. In COCOON04, Vol. 3106:462471 of LNCS, springer, 2004. 1 comment Keywords: explicit network, from triplets, galled tree, level k phylogenetic network, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, reconstruction. Note: http://www.df.lth.se/~jj/Publications/ipnrt6_COCOON2004.pdf.







David Bryant and
Vincent Moulton. NeighborNet: An Agglomerative Method for the Construction of Planar Phylogenetic Networks. In WABI02, Vol. 2452:375391 of LNCS, springer, 2002. Keywords: abstract network, circular split system, from distances, NeighborNet, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3540457844_28.



FrançoisJoseph Lapointe. How to account for reticulation events in phylogenetic analysis: A review of distancebased methods. In Journal of Classification, Vol. 17:175184, 2000. Keywords: abstract network, evaluation, from distances, phylogenetic network, Program Pyramids, Program SplitsTree, Program T REX, pyramid, reconstruction, reticulogram, split network, survey, weak hierarchy. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003570000016.



JeanChristophe Aude,
Yolande DiazLazcoz,
JeanJacques Codani and
JeanLoup Risler. Applications of the Pyramidal Clustering Method to Biological Objects. In CC, Vol. 23(34):303315, 1999. Keywords: from distances, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program Pyramids, pyramid, reconstruction, software, visualization. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S00978485(99)000066.



Vincent Berry and
David Bryant. Faster reliable phylogenetic analysis. In RECOMB99, Pages 5968, 1999. Keywords: abstract network, from quartets, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, polynomial, Program SplitsTree, reconstruction, split network, weakly compatible. Note: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.95.9151.





Andreas W. M. Dress,
Daniel H. Huson and
Vincent Moulton. Analyzing and visualizing distance data using SplitsTree. In DAM, Vol. 71(1):95109, 1996. Keywords: abstract network, from distances, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program SplitsTree, software, split network, visualization. Note: http://bibiserv.techfak.unibielefeld.de/splits/splits.pdf.





Jotun Hein. A heuristic method to reconstruct the history of sequences subject to recombination. In JME, Vol. 36(4):396405, 1993. Keywords: explicit network, from sequences, heuristic, parsimony, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program RecPars, recombination, recombination detection, software. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00182187.



HansJürgen Bandelt and
Andreas W. M. Dress. Weak hierarchies associated with similarity measures: an additive clustering technique. In BMB, Vol. 51:113166, 1989. Keywords: abstract network, clustering, from distances, from trees, phylogenetic network, phylogeny, Program WeakHierarchies, reconstruction, weak hierarchy. Note: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02458841.
Toggle abstract
"A new and apparently rather useful and natural concept in cluster analysis is studied: given a similarity measure on a set of objects, a subset is regarded as a cluster if any two objects a, b inside this subset have greater similarity than any third object outside has to at least one of a, b. These clusters then form a closure system which can be described as a hypergraph without triangles. Conversely, given such a system, one may attach some weight to each cluster and then compose a similarity measure additively, by letting the similarity of a pair be the sum of weights of the clusters containing that particular pair. The original clusters can be reconstructed from the obtained similarity measure. This clustering model is thus located between the general additive clustering model of Shepard and Arabie (1979) and the standard hierarchical model. Potential applications include fitting dendrograms with few additional nonnested clusters and simultaneous representation of some families of multiple dendrograms (in particular, twodendrogram solutions), as well as assisting the search for phylogenetic relationships by proposing a somewhat larger system of possibly relevant "family groups", from which an appropriate choice (based on additional insight or individual preferences) remains to be made. © 1989 Society for Mathematical Biology."


